Anacardiaceae

Anacardium L. (Not native)

  1. Anacardium occidentale L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 383; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 299; EPFP 2 (1923) 469; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 421. Notes: Introduced from Tropical America during the Spanish colonial times. Widely cultivated in the tropics for its nut, the cashew. Naturalized throughout the seasonal parts of the Philippines in settled areas at low and medium elevation, often on sandy soils in villages near seacoasts. Cashew. Naturalized.

Buchanania Spreng.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 13 September 2020
  1. Buchanania arborescens (Blume) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 183; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 300; EPFP 2 (1923) 465; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 415; ≡ Coniogeton arborescens Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 17 (1827) 1156; Type: from Java. = Buchanania platyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 33; EPFP 2 (1923) 467; Type: Miranda [Forest. Bur.] 20274 (PNH, holo, lost; US, K, iso), Mindanao: Misamis, Mar-1913. = Buchanania pseudoflorida Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 24; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 467; Type: Merrill 2061 (NY, iso), Quezon: Tayabas. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines, chiefly in lowland forests, along river banks, near beaches, secondary forests, etc. up to 300m. Native.
  2. Buchanania heterophylla K.Schum., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee (1905) 300; Type: from New Guinea. = Campnosperma philippinensis Merr., PJS 60 (1936) 31; Type: Wenzel 3199, Mindanao: Surigao, near Placer, 28-Mar-1928. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls. BILIRAN, MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur. Notes: Note by James V. LaFrankie (pers. comm., 9-Apr-14): "Ding Hou considered that name [Buchanania heterophylla K.Schum.] a synonym of B. amboinensis. Both are still widely used in New Guinea, but heterophylla seems always to be used for plants with really big thick-stalked leaves where the blade comes broadly right to the twig. B. amboinensis is much more like insignis.". Native.
  3. Buchanania insignis Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 184; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 415; Type: from Borneo. = Buchanania nitida Engl. in DC., Monog. Phan. 4 (1883) 193; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 466; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 418. = Buchanania acuminatissima Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 34; EPFP 2 (1923) 465; Type: Ramos 10932, Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, 1910. = Buchanania conglomerata Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 467; Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3679, nom. inval., no Latin descr. = Buchanania sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3681, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines. BUCAS GRANDE, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Camarines, Laguna, Quezon. Notes: Lowland forests generally, up to 400m. Occasionally on limestone. Note by P.B. Pelser (6-Aug-19): Buchanania nitida is here considered a synonym of Buchanania insignis following LaFrankie (pers. comm. 9-Apr-14). Native.
  4. Buchanania microphylla Engl. in DC., Monog. Phan. 4 (1883) 185; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 466; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 4; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 413; Type: Cuming 1125 (K, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Albay. Distribution: China, Philippines. CEBU, GUIMARAS, LUZON: Albay, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Zambales, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: In seasonal parts of the archipelago, on dry slopes, thickets and secondary forests at low elevation. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Buchanania sessilifolia Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 184, as 'sessifolia'. Distribution: Borneo, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, ?Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand. ?LUZON: ?Bulacan, ?Quezon. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (13-Sep-20): Ridsdale 1905 (L) and Romero et al. PPI 15638 (L) possibly represent this species in the Philippines.

Campnosperma Thwaites

Possibly present

  1. Campnosperma squamatum Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933 (1933) 197. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, ?Philippines. ?LEYTE. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (13-Aug-20): PPI 8620 Barbon, Alvarez & Fuentes (L) possibly represents this species in the Philippines.

Dracontomelon Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 October 2017
  1. Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 108; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 471; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 470, excl. syn. D. edule, D. lamiyo, & D. brachyphyllum; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973; ≡ Paliurus dao Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 174. = Dracontomelon sylvestre Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 231; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 472. = Dracontomelon mangiferum Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 231. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. BASILAN, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, Lanao, Surigao, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, SAMAR. Notes: In Luzon from Cagayan and Ilocos Norte to Sorsogon. Common in primary and secondary forests from near sea-level to 500-1000m. In high rainfall areas, although sometimes with a short dry season. Common name: Dao. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Dracontomelon edule (Blanco) Skeels, US Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bull. 261 (1912) 52; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 471; ≡ Paliurus edulis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 173. Distribution: CEBU, LUZON: Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Camarines, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Cotabato, SAMAR, TABLAS. Notes: Common in lowland primary forests, along riverbanks and on hills. This species is widely considered a synonym of Dracontomelon dao, but is considered distinct in the Philippines. It is mostly a smaller tree with larger fruits, and lacks the great sweeping buttresses of Dracontomelon dao. Common name: Lamio. Native.

Koordersiodendron Engl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017
  1. Koordersiodendron pinnatum (Blanco) Merr., Philip. Bur. For. Bull. 1 (1903) 33; EPFP 2 (1923) 470; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 486. = Odina speciosa Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 206. Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Luzon (Cagayan) to Palawan and Mindanao. Lowland forests, rarely up to 450m elevation, on dryland or occasionally inundated areas. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Mangifera L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 2 July 2021
  1. Mangifera altissima Blanco, Fl. Filip (1837) 181; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 467; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 24; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 430; Kumar & Chakrabarty, Rheedea 31 (2021) 93; Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 831 (L, neo; A, CAL, GH, K, NY, US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal, Angat, Dec-1913; Ahern's collector 2442 (CAL, epi), Luzon: Rizal, Jan-March-1905. = Mangifera parvifolia auct. non Boerl. & Koord.; Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 401; EPFP 2 (1923) 469. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. ALABAT, LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, NCR, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, Tarlac, Tayabas, Zambales, MALAPACKUN, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN. Notes: Chiefly in lowland primary forests whether inland or sometimes coastal, ascending to 400m. Common. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Mangifera caesia Jack in Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Wall. 2 (1824) 441; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 468; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 24; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 438. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Agusan, Misamis, Surigao, Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests, swamp or periodically inundated areas along rivers up to c. 450m. Also in semicultivated state. Native.
  3. Mangifera indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 200; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 300; EPFP 2 (1923) 468; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 427. Notes: Probably a native of Indo-Myanmar region and widely cultivated throughout the tropics of both hemispheres. Generally planted as a village tree and cultivated commercially in Peninsular Malaysia, Java and the Philippines. Seemingly indigenous or naturalized in India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina and some islands of West Malesia. Generally cultivated below 500m. Naturalized.
  4. Mangifera laurina Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 195; Kostermans, Blumea 33 (1988) 347. = Mangifera longipes Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 419; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 468; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 428. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatra, Vietnam. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Fl./fr. Feb-Nov. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Mangifera longipes). Native.
  5. Mangifera merrillii Mukherji, Lloydia 12 (1949) 108. = Mangifera parvifolia auct. non Boerl. & Koord.; Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 401. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Zambales, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forest. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Mangifera monandra Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 28; EPFP 2 (1923) 468; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 432; Coritico et al., PJS 151 (2022) 2438. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, SAMAR, TABLAS, TICAO. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  7. Mangifera odorata Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 417; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 468; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 26; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 437. Distribution: ?Laos, ?Thailand, ?Vietnam. BALABAC, BASILAN, JOLO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Notes: Native country not known, possibly of cultivated (hybrid?) origin, sometimes found in lowland forest in Sumatra, Borneo and Java, but possibly from planted or naturalized trees. Chiefly found in cultivation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Naturalized.

Parishia Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018
  1. Parishia maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2 (1876) 30; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 543. = Parishia oblongifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 413; EPFP 2 (1923) 473. Distribution: Borneo, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra. PANAY, SIBUYAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests including ultramafics and inundated riverbanks. Native.
  2. Parishia malabog Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 281; EPFP 2 (1923) 472; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 545. = Spondias romblonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3683, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN, CEBU, LUZON: Aurora, Quezon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDORO, NEGROS, ROMBLON, SIBUTU, SIBUYAN, TABLAS, TICAO. Notes: Forested slopes or coastal rocky cliffs. Native.

Pistacia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 August 2012
  1. Pistacia chinensis Bunge, Enum. Pl. China Bor. (1833) 15; Mém. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 2 (1835) 89; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 472; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 547. = Pistacia philippinensis Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 (1908) 107. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: 1350m. Native.

Pleiogynium Engl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 13 October 2017
  1. Pleiogynium timoriense (DC.) Leenh., Blumea 7 (1952) 159; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 474; ≡ Icica timoriensis DC., Prodr. 2 (1825) 78. = Pleiogynium solandri (Benth.) Engl. in DC., Monog. Phan. 4 (1883) 255; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 472, as ‘solanderi’; ≡ Spondias solandri Benth., Fl. Austral. 1 (1863) 492. Distribution: Australia, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. LUZON: Rizal. Native.

Rhus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2019
  1. Rhus taitensis Guill., Ann. Sc. Nat. 2, 7 (1837) 361; Merr., EPFP 2 (1953) 473; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 537. = Melanococca tomentosa Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 236. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (24-Sep-19): sometimes included in Melanococca when Rhus is more narrowly defined. Native.

Semecarpus L.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 October 2022
  1. Semecarpus bunburyanus Gibbs, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 42 (1914) 67; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 512. = Semecarpus subsessilifolius Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 411, as 'subsessilifolia'; EPFP 2 (1923) 475. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Usually at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Semecarpus cuneiformis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 220; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 299; EPFP 2 (1923) 473; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 517. = Semecarpus anacardium Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 21, nom. illeg., non L.f. = Semecarpus perrottetii Marchand, Rév. Anac. (1869) 169. = Semecarpus microcarpus auct. non Wall. ex Hook.f.; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 55. = Semecarpus pubescens auct. non Thwaites; Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 55. = Semecarpus sideroxyloides Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 28; Type: Merrill 2160, Mindoro: Pinamalayan. = Semecarpus elmeri Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 26; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 473; Type: Merrill 1176, Mindoro: Baco, Jan-1902. = Semecarpus taftianus Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 28, as 'taftiana'; Type: Merrill 734, Palawan: (Island of Paragua) E-wi-ig River, Feb-1903. = Semecarpus ferrugineus Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 412, as 'ferruginea'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 474; Type: BS 30756 Ramos & Edaño, Panay: Capiz, Mt. Macosolon, 22-Apr-1918. = Semecarpus megabotrys Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 285, as 'magabotrys'; EPFP 2 (1923) 474; Type: FB 22359 Alvarez, Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Jan-1911. = Semecarpus pilosus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 287, as 'pilosa'; Type: BS 11435 McGregor, Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Dupax, Mar-1912. = Semecarpus merrillianus Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 27, 'merrilliana'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 474; Type: Merril 851, Palawan: (Island of Paragua) San Antonio Bay. = Semecarpus micranthus Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 27, 'micrantha'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 474; Type: Merrill 20709, Palawan: (Island of Paragua) Ewiig River, Feb-1903. = Semecarpus obtusifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 286, as 'obtusifolia'; EPFP 2 (1923) 475; Type: BS 512 Mangubat, Balabac: 4-Mar-1906. = Semecarpus philippinensis Engl. in DC., Monog. Phan. 4 (1883) 481; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 475. = Semecarpus thyrsoideus Elmer, LPB 9 (1934) 3179, as 'thyrsoidea'; Type: Elmer 21965, Luzon: Pampanga, Zambales Mts, Mt Pinatubo, May-1927. = Semecarpus whitfordii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 288; EPFP 2 (1923) 475; Type: FB 11774 Whitford, Mindanao: Cotabato, Lebak, 4-Mar-1912. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. BALABAC, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao, Misamis, Zamboanga, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, ROMBLON. Notes: In dry thickets, primary and secondary forest in the lowland, sometimes up to 600-700m, occasionally up to c. 1200m. Native.
  3. Semecarpus densiflorus (Merr.) Steenis, PJS 91 (1962) 508; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 516; ≡ Oncocarpus densiflorus Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 476; Type: BS 24546 Ramos, Samar: Catubig River, Cagmanaba, 29-Feb-1913. Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Isabela, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests, open woods, near the shore, sometimes on limestone. Native.
  4. Semecarpus forstenii Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 188; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 509. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi. MINDANAO. Native.
  5. Semecarpus glauciphyllus Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1501; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 474; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 35; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 518. = Semecarpus acuminatissima Merr., PJS 7 (1912) Bot. 282. = Semecarpus oblongifolius Quisumb., PJS 76 (1944) 43, nom. illeg., non Thwaites. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Tayabas, Zambales, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: In forests, sometimes along rivers, up to c. 200m. Native.
  6. Semecarpus longifolius Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 188; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 507; Batuyong et al., Biodiversitas 21 (2020) 3973. = Semecarpus euphlebius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 283, as 'euphlebia'; EPFP 2 (1923) 473; Type: BS 13163 Foxworthy & Ramos, Luzon: Tayabas, Quinatacutan River, Mar-1911. = Semecarpus lanceolatus Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 284, as 'lanceolata'; EPFP 2 (1923) 474; Type: BS 7083 Ramos, Luzon: Abra subprov, Dolores, Feb-1909. = Semecarpus gigantifolius S.Vidal, Sinopsis (1883) 22, as 'gigantifolia'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 474. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Mountain Province, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests, sometimes up to 300m. Native.
  7. Semecarpus macrophyllus Merr., Bull. For. Bur. Philipp. 1 (1903) 33; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 36; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 516; ≡ Oncocarpus macrophylla (Merr.) C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 340; EPFP 2 (1923) 475. = Semecarpus surigaensis Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 475. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan, Surigao, SAMAR. Notes: Forests on dryland, along streams at low elevation. Native.
  8. Semecarpus paucinervius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 286; EPFP 2 (1923) 475; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 36; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 510. = Semecarpus obtusatus Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1752, as 'obtusata'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 475; Type: Elmer 13003, Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Iwahig River, Apr-1911. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland primary forests, along streambank, 100-225m. Fl. Feb, fr. May. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  9. Semecarpus stenophyllus Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 407; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 37; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 507. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, SAMAR. Notes: Riverbank thickets, 150m. Native.
  10. Semecarpus trachyphyllus Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 29, as 'trachyphylla'; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 508; ≡ Oncocarpus trachyphyllus (Perkins) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 476, as 'trachyphylla'; Type: Warburg 11796, Luzon: Malunu. = Semecarpus macrothyrsus Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 26, as 'macrothyrsa'; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 474; Type: Merrill 2447, Luzon: Tayabas, Malicboi. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao, SAMAR. Notes: Primary lowland forests. Native.

Incertae sedis

  1. Semecarpus obovatus (Elmer) Steenis, PJS 91 (1962) 508, nom. illeg., non Moon ex Thwaites; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 37; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 518; ≡ Oncocarpus obovatus (Elmer) Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 413; EPFP 2 (1923) 476; ≡ Dichapetalum obovatum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 483. Notes: It cannot be properly placed from the descriptions and no material has been traced. Ding Hou (1978): Described from a specimen with one immature fruit from Mt Banahao, Lucban, Tayabas, Luzon (Elmer 7931), later supplemented with a male flowered collection from the type locality (Quisumbing 1346). Native.

Solenocarpus Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 November 201
  1. Solenocarpus philippinensis (Elmer) Kosterm., New & Crit. Malays. Pl. 3 (1955) 1; Mitchell & Daly, PhytoKeys 55 (2015) 4; ≡ Spondias philippinensis (Elmer) Airy Shaw & Forman, Kew Bull. 21 (1967) 15; Ding Hou, Blumea 24 (1978) 38; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 485; ≡ Phlebochiton philippinensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 472, as 'philippinense'; ≡ Pegia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3100. Distribution: Borneo, New Guinea, Philippines, Sumatra. LEYTE, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, SAMAR. Native.

Spondias L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 25 October 2020
  1. Spondias dulcis Parkinson, J. Voy. South Seas (1773) 39; Mitchell & Daly, PhytoKeys 55 (2015) 22. = Spondias cytherea Sonn., Voy. Ind. Or. & Chine 3 (1782) 242; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 481. Distribution: Bismarck Arch, Moluccas, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Solomon Isls. Notes: Not native, cultivated in the Philippines and other tropical countries. Lowlands. Naturalized.
  2. Spondias malayana Kosterm., Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 34 (1981) 108; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995). Distribution: Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand. MALAPACKUN. Notes: Known from Malapackun Isl in Palawan from SMHI 825 (L, PNH). Native.
  3. Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz, Prelim. Report. For. & Veg. Pegu App. A (1875) 44; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 470; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 483. Distribution: CATANDUANES, CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Cotabato, Davao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Indo-Malesia, especially in Java and the Philippines, but difficult to ascertain where it is precisely native because of its wide cultivation and tendency to naturalize. Besides in the cultivated state, found in both primary and secondary forests, clearings, and in dry areas, sometimes on limestone, typically in the lowlands. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Spondias mombin L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 371; Mitchell & Daly, PhytoKeys 55 (2015) 34; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 484. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Not native, widely cultivated in Malesia. Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Spondias purpurea L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 613; Mitchell & Daly, PhytoKeys 55 (2015) 41; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 301; EPFP 2 (1923) 471. = Spondias negrosensis Kosterm., Spondiadeae (Anac.) Asia & Pacific (1991) 28; Type: Merrill 639, Luzon: Rizal, Pasay, Apr-1913 (US, iso). Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON. Notes: Not native, now cultivated throughout the tropics. Cultivated, not naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Swintonia Griffith

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018
  1. Swintonia acuta Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 1 (1880) 44; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 444. = Swintonia acuminata Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 35; EPFP 2 (1923) 469. = Swintonia foxworthyi Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1752; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 469; Ding Hou, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 8 (1978) 443. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Aurora, Camarines, Isabela, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Primary lowland forests, along riverbanks, on coral limestone, ultrabasic rocks. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Swintonia luzoniensis Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 109; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 470. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora. Notes: Only known from a single tree (J.V. LaFrankie, pers. com. 4-Dec-13). Also considered synonymous with Swintonia acuta Engl. Native.

Toxicodendron Mill.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018
  1. Toxicodendron borneense (Stapf) Gillis, Rhodora 73(794) (1971) 164; ≡ Rhus borneensis Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 142. Distribution: Borneo, ?Philippines. ?LUZON: Zambales. Native.

References