Amaranthaceae

Chenopodiaceae

Achyranthes L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 May 2021
  1. Achyranthes aspera L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 204; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 195; EPFP 2 (1923) 131; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 88. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Pampanga. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Weed in open waste places; probably introduced in the Philippines (Merrill 1923). Naturalized.
  2. Achyranthes bidentata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 545; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 131; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 88. Distribution: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Java, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Native.

Allmania R.Br. ex Wight

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018
  1. Allmania nodiflora (L.) R.Br. ex Wight in Hook., London J. Bot. 1 (1834) 226; R.Br. in Wall., Cat. (1832) 6890, nom. nud.; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 74; ≡ Celosia nodiflora L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 205. = Allmania albida R.Br. in Wall., Cat. (1832) No. 6981, nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 127. Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.

Alternanthera Forssk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 May 2022
  1. Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G.Nicholson, Illust. Dict. Gard. 1 (1884) 59, as ‘bettzchiana’; Veldk., Blumea 19 (1971) 169; ≡ Telanthera bettzickiana Regel, Index Seminum (LE) 1862 (1862) 28. = Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) R.Br. ex Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 5 (1819) 555, nom. illeg., non P.Beauv.; Moody, Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia (1989) 273; ≡ Gomphrena ficoidea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 225. = Alternanthera ficoides var. versicolor (Regel) Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 93; ≡ Alternanthera versicolor Regel, Gartenfl. (1869) 101; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 192; EPFP 2 (1923) 132. Distribution: S America. Naturalized.
  2. Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 537; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 94; ≡ Gomphrena brasiliana L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 10. = Alternanthera dentata (Moench) Scheygr., Fl. Suriname 1 (1932) 39; ≡ Gomphrena dentata Moench, Suppl. Meth. (1802) 273. Distribution: Neotropics. Naturalized.
  3. Alternanthera paronychioides A.St.-Hil., Voy. Brésil 2, 2 (1833) 43; Veldk., Blumea 19 (1971) 167; Bakh.f. & Veldk., Addenda & Corr., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 6 (1972) 916. Naturalized.
    • var. paronychioides. Distribution: America. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO. Notes: Naturalized.
  4. Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC., Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 77; R.Br. ex Sweet, Hort. Suburb. Lond. (1818) 48; Roth in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 5 (1819) 554; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 132; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 92. Distribution: America, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.

Possibly present

  1. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. in Goett, Abh. 24 (1879) 36; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1 (1949) 93; ≡ Bucholzia philoxeroides Mart., Beitr. Amarantac. (1825) 107. Distribution: S America. ?LUZON: ?Bulacan (photos). Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (15-Jan-21): Reported from Java and Singapore, and listed for the Philippines in L.L. Co's original documents that formed the foundation for this checklist, but I have not seen any specimens.

Amaranthus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 May 2021
  1. Amaranthus blitum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 990. Distribution: Europe. Naturalized.
    • ssp. oleraceus (L.) Costea, Sida 19 (2001) 984; ≡ Amaranthus oleraceus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1403. = Amaranthus lividus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 990; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 77.
  2. Amaranthus caudatus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 990; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 80. Distribution: Neotropics. MINDORO. Naturalized.
  3. Amaranthus cruentus L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10 2 (1759) 1269; ≡ Amaranthus hybridus L. ssp. cruentus (L.) Thell., Fl. Adv. Montpellier (1912) 205. = Amaranthus paniculatus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1406; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 128; ≡ Amaranthus hybridus ssp. cruentus var. paniculatus (L.) Thell. in Asch. & Graebn., Syn. 5, 1 (1914) 247; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 79. = Amaranthus caudatus auct. non L.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 193. Distribution: America. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao. Naturalized in open waste places. Naturalized.
  4. Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell., Fl. Adv. Montpellier (1912) 203. Notes: Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  5. Amaranthus spinosus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 991; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 192; EPFP 2 (1923) 128; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 78. Distribution: America. Notes: Weed in open waste lands, roadsides, fields, gardens, etc., gregarious and abundant along sand bars and margins of streams, 0-1400m. . Naturalized.
  6. Amaranthus tricolor L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 989; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 128; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 77. Distribution: S America. LUZON, MINDANAO. Notes: Luzon to Mindanao; naturalized in waste places. Naturalized.
  7. Amaranthus viridis L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1405; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 193; EPFP 2 (1923) 128. = Amaranthus gracilis Desf., Tabl. Enc. Bot. (1804) 43; Backer, Fl.Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 76. Distribution: C & S America. Notes: Waste places and cultivated grounds (Merrill 1912). Naturalized.

Possibly present

  1. Amaranthus hybridus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 990. = Amaranthus hybridus ssp. incurvatus (Trimen ex Gren. & Gord.) Brenan, Watsonia 4 (1961) 268; ≡ Amaranthus incurvatus Trimen ex Gren. & Gord., Fl. France Prosp. (1846) 8. Distribution: N America. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (15-Jan-21): Listed for the Philippines in L.L. Co's original documents that formed the foundation for this checklist, but I have not seen any specimens.

Blutaparon Raf. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Rex Sadaba, 26 April 2018
  1. Blutaparon vermiculare (L.) Mears, Taxon 31 (1982) 113; ≡ Gomphrena vermicularis L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 224. Distribution: Africa, America. CEBU (photos). Notes: Coastal saline and mangrove habitats. Naturalized.

Celosia L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 10 August 2019
  1. Celosia argentea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 205; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 190; EPFP 2 (1923) 127; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 73. Notes: Pantropic ubiquitous weed, wild but non-native, possibly introduced from tropical Africa. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation in the settled areas. Very common along sandy-gravelly river banks, open dry roadsides, fields, gardens, etc. Naturalized.
  2. Celosia cristata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 205; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 127; ≡ Celosia argentea var. cristata (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 541. Notes: Pantropic in cultivation for ornamental purposes. Also sometimes running wild but not far from human habitation. Naturalized.

Chenopodium L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 June 2012
  1. Chenopodium acuminatum Willd., Ges. Nat. Fr. Neue Schr. 2 (1799) 124; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 125; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 103. Distribution: China, Japan, Philippines, Russia, Taiwan. BATAN. Notes: In waste places. Native.
  2. Chenopodium album L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 219; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 103. Distribution: Africa, America, Australia, Continental Asia, Europe. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Introduced in Java and naturalized in the E part of the island, N Philippines. A casual weed in temperate vegetable gardens, c. 1300-1400m. Naturalized.

Cyathula Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 December 2021
  1. Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 549; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 194; EPFP 2 (1923) 129; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 82. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, C & S America, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
    • var. prostrata. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, C & S America, Cambodia, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. In the settled areas, 1-1650m, common in shaded localities, along roadsides, waste places, thickets, plantation forests, forest-edges, secondary forests, often gregarious.
    • var. lancifolia (Merr.) Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 83; ≡ Cyathula lancifolia Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 179; EPFP 2 (1923) 129.

Deeringia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 April 2022
  1. Deeringia amaranthoides (Lam.) Merr., Interp. Herb. Amb. (1917) 211; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 126; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 71; ≡ Achyranthes amaranthoides Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 548. = Deeringia baccata Moq. in DC., Prodr. 132 (1849) 236; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 190. Distribution: Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Deeringia polysperma (Roxb.) Moq. in DC., Prodr. 132 (1849) 236; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 126; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 72; ≡ Celosia polysperma Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 511. = Deeringia polysperma var. pubescens (Schinz) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 126; ≡ Deeringia indica var. pubescens Schinz, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II 3 (1903) 3; Type: Warburg 11703, Nortern Luzon. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Thickets, light forests, forest edges, low to medium elevation, ascending to 1800m in Benguet. Much rarer than Deeringia amaranthoides. Native.

Digera Forssk. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018

Possibly present

  1. Digera muricata (L.) Mart., Beitr. Amar. (1825) 77; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 80; ≡ Achyranthes muricata L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 295. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, India, Indian Ocean, Indochina, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, Pakistan, ?Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi. Notes: Note by P.B. Pelser (15-Mar-20): included for the Philippines in the original, unpublished version of this checklist by L.L. Co, but it is not clear to me what the source of this information is.

Dysphania R.Br. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 6 July 2017
  1. Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants, Ukrayins'k. Bot. Zhurn. 59 (2002) 382; Fuentes-Bazan et al. 2012; ≡ Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 219; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 189; EPFP 2 (1923) 125; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 101. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Benguet. Notes: Native of the neotropics, introduced in many other regions, as well as ‘throughout’ the Philippines (although now seem to be common only in Benguet at c. 1400m). Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.

Gomphrena L. (Not native)

  1. Gomphrena celosioides Mart., Beitr. Amar. (1825) 93. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Now widespread in Malesia. Gregarious mat-forming weed along roadsides, abandoned fields, wastelands, and other similar hot, dry and dusty sites at low elevation. Naturalized.
  2. Gomphrena globosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 224; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 191; EPFP 2 (1923) 132; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 95. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Introduced long ago in Malesia, either cultivated or semi-naturalized. Throughout the settled areas of the Philippines in cultivation, often occurring as an escape. Lowlands to c.1300m. Naturalized.

Iresine P.Browne (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 September 2019

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4 (1806) 765.
    • forma herbstii (Hook.) Pedersen, Bonplandia (Corrientes) 10 (2000) 104; ≡ Iresine herbstii Hook., Gard. Chron. (1864) 654, 1206; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 132; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 97. Distribution: C & S America. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, not naturalized. Only known from cultivated plants (Pedersen 2000).

Lipandra Moq. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 June 2012
  1. Lipandra polysperma (L.) S.Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch, Willdenowia 42 (2012) 14; ≡ Chenopodium polyspermum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 220; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 126; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 101. Distribution: Continental Asia, Europe. Notes: Merrill (1923) records the plant as a casual weed in the Philippines. Naturalized.

Ouret Adans.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 May 2022
  1. Ouret lanata (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 544; ≡ Aerva lanata (L.) Juss., Ann. Mus. Paris 11 (1808) 131; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 194; EPFP 2 (1923) 130; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 84; ≡ Achyranthes lanata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 204. Distribution: Africa, Australia, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, Moluccas, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Vietnam. Native.
  2. Ouret sanguinolenta (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 544; ≡ Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 547; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 85; ≡ Achyranthes sanguinolenta L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 294. = Aerva scandens (Roxb.) Wall., Icon. Pl. Orient. 2 (1840) t.724; Cat. (1829) 6911, nom. nud.; Moq. in DC., Prodr. 13, 2 (1849) 302; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 130; ≡ Achyranthes scandens Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 509. = Aerva velutina Moq. in DC., Prodr. 13 (1849) 301; Type: Cuming 1635 (K, syn), Panay: Mar-1837. Distribution: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malaysia, Moluccas, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. PANAY. Native.

Psilotrichum Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018
  1. Psilotrichum ferrugineum (Roxb.) Moq. in DC., Prodr. 13, 2 (1849) 279; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 90; ≡ Achyranthes ferruginea Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 502. = Psilotrichum trichotomum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 545; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 130. Distribution: Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.

Pupalia Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 May 2018
  1. Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss., Ann. Mus. Paris 2 (1803) 132; Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 129; Backer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1949) 83; ≡ Achyranthes lappacea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 204. = Pupalia atropurpurea (Lam.) Moq. in DC., Prodr. 132 (1849) 331; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 193; ≡ Achyranthes atropurpurea Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 546. Distribution: Afghanistan, Africa, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Middle East, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi. Native.

Literature