Acanthaceae

Avicenniaceae

Acanthus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 August 2022
  1. Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, Symb. 2 (1791) 75; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 479. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Thailand, Vietnam. GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Along tidal streams, inland borders of mangroves within the influence of salt or brackish water. Native.
  2. Acanthus ilicifolius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 639; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 441; EPFP 3 (1923) 480. = Acanthus doloariu Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 487; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 636 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Manila, Oct-1913. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Isls, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, La Union, Pampanga, Rizal, PANAY. Notes: Brackish swamps and tidal streams. Native.
  3. Acanthus volubilis Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1831) 56; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 480. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Thailand. BASILAN, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Brackish swamps and tidal streams. Native.

Andrographis Wall. ex Nees (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 July 2022
  1. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 116; ≡ Justicia paniculata Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 9. Distribution: India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific Ocean, Sri Lanka, Vietnam. Naturalized.

Aphelandra R.Br. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 April 2021
  1. Aphelandra sinclairiana Nees in Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulphur (1846) 146. Distribution: C America. LUZON: Laguna (photos). Notes: Naturalized along the trails on Mt Makiling (C.C. Lucañas, pers. comm. 5-Apr-21). Naturalized.

Asystasia Blume (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 March 2020
  1. Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson in Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1860) 235; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 480; Kiew & Vollesen, Kew Bull. 52 (1997) 969; ≡ Justicia gangetica L., Cent. Pl. 2 (1756) 3; Type: from India. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Middle East, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Naturalized.
    • ssp. gangetica. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. Naturalized.
    • ssp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu in Seyani & Chikuni, Proc. XIII Plenary Meet. AETFAT, Zomba, Malawi, 1991 1 (1994) 343; ≡ Asystasia coromandeliana var. micrantha Nees, Prodr. 11 (1847) 165. = Asystasia intrusa (Forssk.) Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 166. Distribution: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East. Naturalized.

Avicennia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 August 2022
  1. Avicennia alba Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 821; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 299; ≡ Avicennia marina var. alba (Blume) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 103; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 104; Primavera et al. (2004) 22. Distribution: Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. MINDANAO: Cotabato, Lanao, Misamis, Surigao del Norte. Notes: Fairly common along muddy seashores and embankments of river deltas. Native.
  2. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., Denkschr. Akad. Wissensch. Wien 71 (1907) 435; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 300; Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 107; Primavera et al. (2004) 24; ≡ Sceura marina Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 37. = Avicennia resinifera auct. non G.Forst.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; ≡ Avicennia marina var. resinifera (G.Forst.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 104, nom. illeg., p.p. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Nicobar Isls, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Solomon Isls, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Along muddy seashores and tidal streams. Rather common. Native.
    • ssp. eucalyptifolia (Valeton) J.Everett, Telopea 5 (1994) 629; ≡ Avicennia eucalyptifolia (Valeton) Zipp. ex Moldenke, Phytologia 7 (1960) 162; Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1858-59) 912; Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 107; Fernando & Pancho, Sylvatrop Philip. For. Res. J. 5(3) (1980) 43; ≡ Avicennia officinalis var. eucalyptifolia Valeton, Bull. Dép. Agric. Indes Néerl. 10 (1907) 53. Distribution: Australia, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Solomon Isls. Notes: Southern Philippines. Native.
    • ssp. marina. = Avicennia mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 8 (1915) 2868, as 'mindanaense'; Type: Elmer 11990 in part (G, CAL, E, L, W, US, holo), Mindanao. Distribution: Africa, Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Native.
  3. Avicennia officinalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 110; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 408; Kochummen, Tree Fl. Malaya 3 (1978) 300; Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 110; Primavera et al. (2004) 26. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Moluccas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. In the more inland part of mangroves along riverbanks on firm mud. Becoming rarer on the seaward side. Native.
  4. Avicennia rumphiana Hallier f., Meded. Rijks-Herb. 37 (1918) 89; Primavera et al. (2004) 28; ≡ Avicennia marina var. rumphiana (Hallier f.) Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 3, 3 (1921) 104; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 407; Fernando & Pancho, Sylvatrop Philip. For. Res. J. 5(3) (1980) 43; Aragones et al., Bot. Identif. Handbook Philip. Mangroves (1998) 110. = Avicennia nitida auct. non Jacq.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 504. = Avicennia officinalis auct. non L.; Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 122; Fl. Manila (1912) 397. = Avicennia tomentosa auct. non Jacq.; Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 353; Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1878) 289. = Avicennia lanata Ridl., J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 10 (1920) 151; Type: from Singapore and Malay Peninsula. Distribution: Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Talaud Isls. Notes: Throughout the Philippines. Common along muddy seashores and mangrove tidal streams. Native.

Barleria L. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 8 August 2020
  1. Barleria prionitis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 636; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 479. Distribution: Africa, Bangladesh, China, India, Indian Ocean, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Madagascar, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Nicobar Isls, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam. CUYO ARCHIPELAGO, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Thickets and waste places in and about towns at low elevation. Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Barleria cristata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 636; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 437; EPFP 3 (1923) 479. Distribution: China, India. Notes: Rather widely cultivated in the Philippines for ornamental purposes but not known to produce seeds. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Barleria lupulina Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 18 (1832) t. 1483; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 479. Distribution: Madagascar. Notes: Cultivated, but not known to be naturalized. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Dicliptera Juss.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 June 2021
  1. Dicliptera caudatifolia (Merr.) Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 97; ≡ Peristrophe caudatifolia Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 54; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher 12196 (K, M, PNH, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Montalban, Jul-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Rizal. Native.
  2. Dicliptera clarkei Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1689; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 486; Type: Elmer 21585 (BISH, F, GH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Feb-1911. = Peristrophe orbiculata Merr., ined.; Soejarto et al., Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan (1995); Voucher: Merrill Phil. Pl. 1377 (A, NY), Palawan, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forested ridges and along trails through primary forests up to 800m. Native.
  3. Dicliptera contorta (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 486; ≡ Ruellia contorta Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 496; Type: None extant; Merrill Species Blancoanae 802 (US, illustrative specimen may be designated as neotype), Luzon: Batangas, Bauan, Feb-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Batangas, Bulacan, La Union, Pangasinan, Zambales, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SIQUIJOR. Notes: Lowland thickets. Native.
  4. Dicliptera cordatibractea (Merr.) Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 97; ≡ Peristrophe cordatibractea Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 455; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; Type: BS 39392 Ramos (K, P, PNH lost, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Mt Calavite, along streams in primary forest, c. 700m, Apr-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Low to medium elevation forests along streams. Native.
  5. Dicliptera lancifolia (Merr.) Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 97; ≡ Peristrophe lancifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 229; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; Type: FB 19258 Curran (K, NY, PNH lost, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan, Balanga Mtns, Jan-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Quezon, Zambales. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  6. Dicliptera leonotis Dalzell ex C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1885) 553; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 486. Distribution: India, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Lowland thickets, ascending to 1200m in Mountain Province. Native.
  7. Dicliptera paniculata (Forssk.) I.Darbysh., Kew Bull. 62 (2007) 122; ≡ Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk.) Brummitt, Kew Bull. 38 (1983) 451; Hu et al., Fl. China 19 (2011) 464; ≡ Dianthera paniculata Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 7. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Ilocos Sur. Notes: P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (8-Aug-2020): recorded presence in the Philippines might be based on Iwatsuki et al. 949 (L). Native.
  8. Dicliptera tinctoria (Nees) Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 3 (1834) 937; ≡ Dicliptera sivarajanii Karthik. & Moorthy, Fl. Pl. India (2009) 12, nom. illeg., nom. superfl.; ≡ Peristrophe tinctoria Nees in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3 (1832) 113; ≡ Justicia tinctoria Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 124, nom. illeg. = Peristrophe bivalvis (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; ≡ Justicia bivalvis L., Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 2 (1759) 850. = Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek., Act. Bot. Neerl. 5 (1955) 656; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 674; ≡ Justicia roxburghiana Schult., Mant. 1 (1822) 140. Distribution: China, India, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Taiwan. BOHOL, CORON, LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Lanao, Surigao, PALAWAN, SIASI. Notes: Coconut groves and thickets at low and medium elevation, often cultivated or semi-cultivated in S Philippines, in Benguet ascending to 1600m. The name Dicliptera roxburghiana is occupied by Dicliptera roxburghiana Nees. The name Dicliptera bivalvis is occupied by Dicliptera bivalvis Juss. Native.

Elytraria Michx. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 August 2020
  1. Elytraria imbricata (Vahl) Pers., Syn. 1 (1805) 23; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 468; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 24; ≡ Justicia imbricata Vahl, Eclog. Amer. 1 (1797) 1. = Elytraria amara Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 8; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 362 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Manila, Dec-1915. = Elytraria tridentata Vahl, Enum. 1 (1804) 107; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 435. Distribution: Neotropics. LUZON: Batangas, Camarines, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal. Notes: In and about towns at low elevation, in open waste places, dry thickets, etc. Naturalized.

Graptophyllum Nees (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 May 2021

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff., Notul. 4 (1854) 139; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 439; EPFP 3 (1923) 481; ≡ Justicia picta L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 21. Notes: Old World tropics, introduced in the neotropics. L.L.Co: Apparently introduced in the Philippines where two forms occur, one with dark purple leaves, and one with green leaves blotched with white. Neither is known to produce seeds. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Gymnostachyum Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 8 August 2020
  1. Gymnostachyum affine Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 480; Type: Cuming 1719, Samar. Distribution: Philippines, Vietnam. BASILAN, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Bulacan, Ifugao, Pampanga, Pangasinan, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga, MINDORO, SAMAR. Native.
    • var. affine. Distribution: SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
    • var. loheri C.B.Clarke in Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 480. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, LUZON: Abra, Bataan, Bulacan, Ifugao, Pampanga, Pangasinan, MINDANAO: Lanao, Zamboanga. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  2. Gymnostachyum cumingianum Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 94; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; Type: Cuming 589. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Lowland forests up to 300m. L.L.Co: apparently very rare and local. Native.
  3. Gymnostachyum longispicatum Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 481; Type: BS 34999 Ramos & Pascasio (US, iso), Siargao, Jun-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, SIARGAO. Notes: Lowland thickets or forests. Native.
  4. Gymnostachyum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1701; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; ≡ Staurogyne palawanensis (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 40; Type: Elmer 12741 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan, Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowlands, deforested areas. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  5. Gymnostachyum pictum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1700; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; Type: Elmer 13182 (F, NY, iso), Palawan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Forested ravines along streams, c. 750m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  6. Gymnostachyum spiciforme (Elmer) Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 314; EPFP 3 (1923) 481; ≡ Justicia spiciformis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 349; Type: Elmer 7347 (NY, iso), Leyte: Palo, Jan-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  7. Gymnostachyum trichosepalum Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 54; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; Type: Loher 13484, Luzon: Rizal, Paningtingan, Mar-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: L.L.Co: Known only from the type collection. Native.

Hemigraphis Nees. (Not native)

Incertae sedis

  1. Hemigraphis decipiens (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 471; ≡ Ruellia decipiens Nees, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3 (1832) 83; Type: Haenke s.n. (GZU), Luzon: Sorsogon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Notes: P.B. Pelser (12-May-20): Type specimen is incomplete, but it is not Strobilanthes (Deng Yunfei, pers. comm. 11-May-20). Native.
  2. Hemigraphis luzona (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 472; ≡ Ruellia luzona Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 151; Type: Haenke s.n. (GZU), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Notes: P.B. Pelser (12-May-20): Type specimen is incomplete, but it is not Strobilanthes (Deng Yunfei, pers. comm. 11-May-20). Native.

Hygrophila R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 July 2022
  1. Hygrophila corymbosa (Blume) Lindau, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 38; ≡ Nomaphila corymbosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 804; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 470. Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga, MINDANAO: Misamis, SAMAR. Notes: Open rather wet places, apparently rare and local in the Philippines. Native.
  2. Hygrophila erecta (Burm.f.) Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 230; Hu et al., Fl. China 19 (2011) 431; Chowdhury & Das, Pleione 8 (2014) 208; ≡ Ruellia erecta Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 135. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LEYTE, LUZON: Laguna, PANAY. Native.
  3. Hygrophila phlomoides Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 80; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 442; EPFP 3 (1923) 469. Distribution: India to Malay Peninsula and Java. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Lowlands, in open grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc. Native.
  4. Hygrophila quadrivalvis (Buch.-Ham.) Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 80; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 469; ≡ Ruellia quadrivalvis Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 14 (1824) 291. Distribution: Borneo, India to Indochina, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation open grasslands, fallow rice paddies, etc. L.L.Co: Apparently very close to Hygrophila phlomoides Nees. P.B. Pelser (8-Aug-2020): Included as a synonym of Hygrophila erecta in Plants of the World online (plantsoftheworldonline.org), but the source of this taxonomic conclusion is unclear. Native.
  5. Hygrophila ringens (L.) R.Br. ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 2 (1825) 828; ≡ Hygrophila ringens (L.) R.Br. ex Steud., Nomen. Ed. 2, 1 (1840) 783, isonym; ≡ Ruellia ringens L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 635. = Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 81; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 470, as 'salifolia'; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 661; ≡ Ruellia salicifolia Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3 (1794) 84. = Hygrophila angustifolia R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 479; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 442. = Antirrhinum comintanum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 502. Distribution: LUZON, MINDORO. Native.
    • ssp. ringens. Distribution: Andaman Isls, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, China, Hong Kong, India, Indian Ocean, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Isls, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON. Notes: Open wet places, especially near the sea. Native.
  6. Hygrophila stricta (Vahl) Lindau, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3b) (1895) 297; ≡ Nomaphila stricta (Vahl) Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 84; ≡ Justicia stricta Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 6. Distribution: Java, Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Synonym of Hygrophila corymbosa (Blume) Lindau? Native.

Hypoestes R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 July 2022
  1. Hypoestes cinerea C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 89; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 486. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, NCR, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests, ascending to 1200m. Native.
  2. Hypoestes confertiflora Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 451; EPFP 3 (1923) 487; Type: BS 4756 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Sta Maria, open places at low elevation, Dec-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Notes: Open places at low elevation. Native.
  3. Hypoestes cumingiana (Nees) Fern.-Vill. in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1880) 157; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 661; ≡ Peristrophe cumingiana Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 498; Type: Cuming 1015. = Hypoestes linearis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 517; Type: Elmer 7830 (MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon, Lucban, May-1907. Distribution: China, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Laguna, Mountain Province, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests, often along streams. Native.
  4. Hypoestes floribunda R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 474; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487. Distribution: Australia, Bismarck Arch, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Notes: Mostly in medium elevation thickets and forests, chiefly along streams. Native.
  5. Hypoestes halconensis Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 490; EPFP 4 (1925) 251; Type: BS 40715 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Paluan, Mar-1922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: On forested slopes, 1000m. Native.
  6. Hypoestes malaccensis Wight, Icon. 4 (1850) t. 1555. = Hypoestes laxiflora Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 508; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487; Type: Cuming 1019 (NY, iso). Distribution: Australia, Java, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, La Union, Mountain Province, Rizal, Zambales. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  7. Hypoestes merrillii C.B.Clarke ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1697; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 487; Type: Merrill 794, Palawan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUTU. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  8. Hypoestes mindorensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 448; EPFP 3 (1923) 487; Type: BS 39702 Ramos (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Paluan, dry forests at low elevation, Apr-1921. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Lowland dry forests. Native.
  9. Hypoestes palawanensis C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 246; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 488; Type: BS 316 Bermejos (NY, US, iso), Palawan, Jan-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forested talus slopes, forested ridges, etc. ascending to 800m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  10. Hypoestes psilochlamys Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 18; Type: Celastino 4384 (A, U), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Pulog, 2000m, 3-Mar-1948. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Norte, MINDORO. Native.
  11. Hypoestes subcapitata C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 90; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 488. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Low elevation forests near streams. Native.
  12. Hypoestes tenuis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 450; EPFP 3 (1923) 488; Type: FB 16693 Bacani (US, iso), Luzon: Cagayan, between Mision and San Vicente, near the seashore, Mar-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDORO. Notes: Near seashore. Native.
  13. Hypoestes vidalii C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 90; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 488. = Hypoestes acutior C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 90; Type: BS 62 Foxworthy (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Rizal, Jan-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga, Zamboanga del Sur, MINDORO. Notes: Low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  14. Hypoestes zamboangensis Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 97; ≡ Hypoestes axillaris Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 449, nom. illeg., non Benoist; EPFP 3 (1923) 486; Type: Merrill 5473 (L, PNH lost, syn), Mindanao: Zamboanga, in shaded ravines at low elevation, 10-Oct-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Native.

Isoglossa Oerst.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 15 September 2020
  1. Isoglossa dichotoma (Hassk.) B.Hansen, Nordic J. Bot. 5 (1985) 10; ≡ Peristrophe dichotoma Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. (1844) 152; Type: from Java. Distribution: LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. dichotoma. Distribution: Africa, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.

Justicia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 19 July 2022
  1. Justicia addisoniensis (Elmer) C.M.Gao & Y.F.Deng, Ann. Bot. Fennici 48 (2011) 92; Tong & Feng, Phytotaxa 483 (2021) 192; ≡ Polytrema addisoniense (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 (1915) 341; ≡ Calophanoides addisoniensis (Elmer) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 20; ≡ Hallieracantha addisoniensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 483; ≡ Hypoestes addisoniensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1697, as 'addisoniense'; Type: Elmer 12715 (PNH holo; BISH, GH, K, MO, US, iso), Palawan: Brookes Point, Addison’s Peak, Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Low elevation thickets and damp ravines along streams. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Justicia aspera (Nees) Y.Tong & Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 483 (2021) 192; ≡ Adhatoda aspera Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 397; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 490; Type: Cuming 1403 (K, holo), Luzon. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Native.
  3. Justicia dispar Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 62; EPFP 3 (1923) 489; Tong & Feng, Phytotaxa 483 (2021) 197; ≡ Calophanoides dispar (Merr.) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 19; Type: BS 26499 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija, Mt Umingan (= Mingan Mtns), Aug/Sep-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Ecija, MINDORO, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests. Native.
  4. Justicia gendarussa Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 10; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 489; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 665; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 263 (US, illustrative specimen), Palawan: Taytay, Apr-1913. = Gendarussa vulgaris Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 410. Distribution: India to China, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: N Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Chiefly along streams at low and medium elevation in both secondary and primary forests, sometimes in thickets in and about towns, rarely planted. Native.
  5. Justicia loheri C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 489; Tong & Feng, Phytotaxa 483 (2021) 197; ≡ Calophanoides loheri (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 45 (1948) 58; Type: Loher 4246 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet, Mt Santo Tomas, Jun-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES, LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, NCR, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Zambales, PANAY, SAMAR, SIBUYAN. Notes: Damp shaded ravines along small streams at low and medium elevation, also in mossy forests up to 2000m. Native.
  6. Justicia luzonensis C.B.Clarke, Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 35 (1906) 91; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 489; ≡ Rhaphidospora luzonensis (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 45 (1948) 49. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Cagayan, Ifugao, Isabela, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, MINDORO, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests, often along streams. Native.
  7. Justicia procumbens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 15; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 490; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 665; ≡ Rostellularia procumbens (L.) Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 371. Distribution: BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
    • var. procumbens. Distribution: Australia, India, Indochina, Japan, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. BATANES, LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Batanes and N Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. Open waste places at low and medium elevation. Native.
  8. Justicia pulgarensis (Elmer) C.M.Gao & Y.F.Deng, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 18 (2010) 257; Tong & Feng, Phytotaxa 483 (2021) 204; ≡ Calophanoides pulgarensis (Elmer) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 11; ≡ Hallieracantha elmeri Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 484; ≡ Polytrema pulgarense (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 (1915) 342; ≡ Hypoestes pulgarense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1698; Type: Elmer 12785 (PNH, holo; BISH, BM, F, GH, K, MO, NY, P, U, US, iso), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, Mar-1911. = ?Hallieracantha pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1692; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 484; Type: Elmer 13061 (BISH, F, L, NY, iso), Palawan: Mt Pulgar, forest c. 250 ft, Mar-1911. = ?Hallieracantha philippinensis Stapf, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 38 (1907) 14; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 484; Type: Vidal 3408 (K), Mindanao: Zamboanga. = ?Ptyssiglottis dispar Hallier f., Nova Acta Nat. Cur. 70 (1898) 220. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Ptyssiglottis elmeri Merr.). Native.
  9. Justicia ramosii (Quisumb. & Merr.) Y.Tong & Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 483 (2021) 204; ≡ Hallieracantha ramosii Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 199; Type: BS 46352 Ramos (PNH, holo; BM, BRI-AQ, K, NY, P, SING, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Pinaligpigan near Puerto Galera, forested slopes, c. 1000m, 9-Dec-1925. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PALAWAN. Native.
  10. Justicia scandens Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 7; ≡ Justicia glabra J.Koenig ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1820) 132; Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 4, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 489. Distribution: Africa, India, Madagascar, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka. GUIMARAS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Quezon, PANAY. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets and forests. Native.
  11. Justicia sulitii Y.Tong & Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 483 (2021) 204; ≡ Calophanoides pubescens Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 19; Type: Sulit PNH 8573 (PNH, holo; U, iso), Luzon: Batangas, Mt Lobo, c. 350m, 28-Oct-1946. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Native.
  12. Justicia tenuis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 490; Type: FB 15536 Merritt & Darling (NY, syn), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Nov-1908. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Open places at low elevation. Native.
  13. Justicia vidalii C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 248; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 490; ≡ Rhyticalymma vidalii (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 12; Type: BS 288 J. Bermejos (GH, NY, iso), Palawan, Jan-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BALABAC, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Justicia brandegeeana Wassh. & L.B.Sm., Fl. Ilustr. Catarin. 1, fasc. Acan. (1969) 102; ≡ Drejerella guttata (Brandegee) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 14; ≡ Beloperone guttata Brandegee, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 4 (1912) 278. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Lepidagathis Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 July 2022
  1. Lepidagathis amaranthoides Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1695; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; Type: Elmer 12615 (US, iso), Palawan: Brooks Point, Addison Peak, Feb-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao Oriental, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  2. Lepidagathis boholensis Y.S.Liang, S.T.Geng, Evangel. & J.C.Wang, Phytotaxa 252 (2016) 131; ≡ Lepidagathis stenophylla auct. non C.B.Clarke ex Hayata; Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 486; Type: BS 43317 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; UC, lecto; BO, K, isolecto), Bohol: Sevilla River, on rocks along mountain streams, c. 300m, Sep-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Low elevation streams subject to periodic flash-flooding. Native.
  3. Lepidagathis cinerea Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 387; EPFP 3 (1923) 476; Type: FB 16078 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (US, para), Luzon: Benguet, Jan-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open grassy slopes, 1000-2000m. Native.
  4. Lepidagathis clarkei Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 344; EPFP 3 (1923) 476; Type: R.S. Williams 37, Luzon: Bataan, Lamao River, damp shaded banks along stream, c. 150m, Oct-1903. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan. Notes: Shaded places along mountain streams, 100-400m. Native.
  5. Lepidagathis dispar C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 386; EPFP 3 (1923) 476; Type: Elmer 6059 (NY, US, syn), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Apr-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal. Notes: Low and medium elevation thickets, open sites and stream banks. Native.
  6. Lepidagathis humilis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 346; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; Type: R.S. Williams 2955 (NY), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Sta. Cruz, 19-Jun-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  7. Lepidagathis inaequalis C.B.Clarke ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1695; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 477; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 671; Type: Cuming 497 (K), Luzon: Laguna. Distribution: Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan. LUZON: Bulacan, Laguna, Sorsogon. Notes: According to Merrill (1923), Elmer 13028 (US) from Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), Palawan does not represent Clarke’s species. It is erroneously labeled as an isotype in US. Native.
  8. Lepidagathis incurva Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 119; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 477. Distribution: India to China, Malay Peninsula, Philippines. BALABAC, LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Rizal, PALAWAN. Notes: Low and medium elevation forests and thickets. Native.
  9. Lepidagathis laxa Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 251; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 477; Type: Cuming 1717, Samar. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, MINDORO, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  10. Lepidagathis macgregorii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 346; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; Type: R.C. McGregor 128, Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River, 15-Mar-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  11. Lepidagathis microphylla Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 63; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; Type: BS 27518 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui, dry open hills at low elevation, 10-Mar-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Notes: Dry open slopes at low elevation. Native.
  12. Lepidagathis mindorensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 343; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; Type: BS 6702 C.B. Robinson (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Bulalacao, rocky soils along stream, 50m, Mar-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Notes: Along streams at low elevation. Native.
  13. Lepidagathis palawanensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 342; EPFP 3 (1923) 477; Type: Merrill 9760 (US, iso), Palawan: Taytay, dry thickets along trail at sea-level, Apr-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  14. Lepidagathis psilantha Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 251; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 478; Type: Cuming 1013 (WU, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Pangasinan. Notes: Low elevation. Probably in thickets or forests. Native.
  15. Lepidagathis secunda (Blanco) Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 259; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 442; EPFP 3 (1923) 478; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 673; ≡ Ruellia secunda Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 495; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 702 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Bulacan, Ipo, Dec-1914. Distribution: Philippines, Taiwan. LUZON: Bulacan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Rizal. Notes: Low elevation, in dry thickets and open dry places, etc. Native.
  16. Lepidagathis spicifera Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2547; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 478; Type: Elmer 13383 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Jul-1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Shaded places along streams, c. 350m. Native.
  17. Lepidagathis subglabra Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 103; EPFP 3 (1923) 478; Type: BS 507 Vanoverbergh (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Malamey, in forest, c. 1600m, 10-May-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. subglabra. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Notes: Forests, c. 1600m. Native.
    • var. lancifolia Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 478; Type: BS 27028 Ramos (US, isosyn), Luzon: Abra, Mt Posuey, Feb-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province. Notes: Forests, 300-1600m. Native.
  18. Lepidagathis subinterrupta Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 345; EPFP 3 (1923) 478; Type: BS 8024 Ramos, Luzon: Isabela, San Luis, boulders along shaded streams, May-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, PANAY. Notes: Boulders along shaded streams at low and medium elevation. Native.
  19. Lepidagathis tenuis C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 92; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 478. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga. Notes: Steep stream gullies at low and medium elevation. Native.

Megaskepasma Lindau (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2020
  1. Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau, Bull. Herb. Boissier 5 (1897) 666. Distribution: C & S America. PANAY (photos). Naturalized.

Nelsonia R.Br. (Not native)

Possibly present

  1. Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16 1 (1824) 42; Hu et al., Fl. China 19 (2011) 371; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 27; ≡ Justicia canescens Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1791) 41. Distribution: Africa, Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, ?Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Notes: P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (8-Aug-20): Widely naturalised and natural distribution unknown (Daniel & McDade 2014). Listed for the Philippines by Hu et al. (2011), but not mentioned for the country by Daniel & McDade (2014).

Odontonema Nees (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 12 September 2020
  1. Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 494; ≡ Thyrsacanthus cuspidatus Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 323. Distribution: C America. Notes: Invasive in the Philippines and elsewhere. P.B. Pelser (12-Sep-20): I am not entirely certain if Philippine specimens belong to this species or to Thyrsacanthus tubaeformis (Bertol.) Nees. Naturalized.

Pachystachys Nees (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 October 2020
  1. Pachystachys coccinea (Aubl.) Nees, Prodr. 11 (1847) 319; ≡ Justicia coccinea Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 1 (1775) 10. Distribution: S America. LUZON: Laguna (photos). Notes: Naturalized and invasive. Naturalized.

Pararuellia Bremek. & Nann.-Bremek.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 15 March 2020
  1. Pararuellia nudispica (C.B.Clarke) Bremek. & Nann.-Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2. 45 (1948) 29; ≡ Staurogyne nudispica (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113; ≡ Gymnostachyum nudispicum (C.B.Clarke) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1700; ≡ Ruellia nudispica C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 248; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; Type: BS 351 Bermejos (US, iso), Palawan: forests near Puerto Princesa, Feb-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. APULIT, JOLO, PALAWAN, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Notes: Low elevation forests and thickets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Staurogyne nudispica). Native.

Pseuderanthemum Radlk.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 8 August 2020
  1. Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Sims) Radlk. ex Lindau, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3B) (1895) 330; Bailey, Gent. Herb. 1 (1923) 130; Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247; ≡ Eranthemum bicolor (Sims) Schrank, Pl. Rar. Hort. Monac. (1819) t. 8; ≡ Justicia bicolor Sims, Bot. Mag. (1811) t. 1423. = Pseuderanthemum pulchellum Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 248; Fl. Manila (1912) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 482. Distribution: Malay Peninsula. LUZON: Cagayan, MINDANAO, PALAWAN. Notes: Introduced in other tropical countries. In most or all islands and provinces. Lowland thickets, often common. Naturalized.
  2. Pseuderanthemum confusum Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 427; Type: BS 44296 Ramos & Edaño (NY, iso), Tawi-Tawi, damp forest along small streams at low elevation, Aug-1924. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland streamside forests. Native.
  3. Pseuderanthemum curtatum (C.B.Clarke) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 482; ≡ Eranthemum curtatum C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 89. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, BATAN, CATANDUANES, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Sur, Davao Oriental, Davao de Oro, Davao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Throughout the Philippines; low and medium elevation primary forests. Native.
  4. Pseuderanthemum depauperatum Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot. 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 482; Type: Merrill 5346. Distribution: Moluccas. PALMAS. Notes: Low elevation cliffs. L.L.Co: Palmas island is actually part of Indonesia, but as it is an islet of the SE coast of Mindanao (Cape San Agustin), the species is presumed to occur also in the Philippines proper. Native.
  5. Pseuderanthemum fruticosum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 482; Type: Elmer 9619 (A, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur, NEGROS. Notes: Forested ravines, c. 750m. Native.
  6. Pseuderanthemum minutiflorum (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 482; ≡ Eranthemum minutiflorum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1687; Type: Elmer 13084 (A, BISH, F, GH, MICH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak), Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland secondary forests along streams. Possibly not a true Pseuderanthemum. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.

Possibly present

  1. Pseuderanthemum diversifolium (Miq.) Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 13 (1883) 286; ≡ Eranthemum diversifolium Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1858) 837. Distribution: Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, ?Philippines. ?PALAWAN. Notes: P.B. Pelser & J.P. Collantes (8-Aug-2020): L.L. Co mentioned specimens of Pseuderanthemum diversifolium from Palawan in his unpublished preliminary version of this checklist, but we have not been able to locate these: "Elmer 12628 (F, GH) from Addison’s Peak, and Ebalo & Conklin 1379 (Aborlan, Mt Apis)".

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem.) Guillaumin, Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille VI, 5-6 (1948) 48; ≡ Eranthemum carruthersii Seem., Fl. Vit. (1866) 185. = Pseuderanthemum reticulatum (W.Bull ex A.de Vos) Radlk., Sitzb. Math.-Phys. Cl. Akad. Wiss. Muench. 13 1833 (1884) 286; ≡ Eranthemum reticulatum W.Bull ex A.de Vos, Belgique Hort. 26 (1876) 151. Distribution: Pacific Ocean. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Ptyssiglottis T.Anderson

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 April 2020
  1. Ptyssiglottis kunthiana (Nees) B.Hansen, Nordic J. Bot. 9 (1989) 214; Type: from Peninsular Malaysia. = Hallieracantha aequifolia (C.B.Clarke) Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 483; ≡ Polytrema aequifolium C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 342; Type: BS 357 Bermejos (K, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Tanobag, 30-Jan-1906. = Hallieracantha brevipetiolata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 457; EPFP 3 (1923) 483; Type: BS 39761 Ramos (K, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental, Paluan, Apr-1921. Distribution: Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Laguna, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Ptyssiglottis aequifolia (C.B.Clarke) Merr.). Native.
  2. Ptyssiglottis undulata (Merr.) B.Hansen, Opera Bot. 34 (1992) 34; ≡ Hallieracantha undulata Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 486; Type: BS 43326 Ramos (US, iso), Bohol: Sevilla, along streams in forests, c. 600m, Sep-1923. = Oreothyrsus samarensis Bremek., Acta Bot. Neerl. 4 (1955) 651; Type: PNH 15323 Edano (U, iso), Samar: Western Samar, Mt Sarauag, along forest edge, 100m, 8-Dec-1951. = Polytrema irosinense Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3676, nom. inval., no Latin descr., as 'irosinensis'; Type: Elmer 15491 (NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, loose ground of open places, Nov-1915. = Polytrema macgregorii Elmer, LPB 10 (1934) 3677, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 15352 (L, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Nov-1915. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Native.

Rhinacanthus Nees (Not native)

  1. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 392 (1870) 79; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 438; EPFP 3 (1923) 488; ≡ Justicia nasuta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 16. Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Cavite, Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Thickets, hedges and waste places in and about towns. Naturalized.

Ruellia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 January 2021
  1. Ruellia blechum L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2 (1759) 1120. = Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb., Fedde Repert. 15 (1918) 323; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 651; ≡ Barleria pyramidata Lam., Encycl. 1 (1785) 380. = Blechum brownei Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 9 (1807) 270; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 444; EPFP 3 (1923) 471. Distribution: Neotropics. BATANES, CEBU, LEYTE, LUZON: Cagayan, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao, Misamis, MINDORO, NEGROS, POLILLO. Notes: Native of the neotropics, now naturalized in Taiwan, the Philippines, Marianas and Carolines. In Luzon from Cagayan to Sorsogon; waste places, open thickets, on and about old walls, etc., in and about towns at low elevation. Usually common. Naturalized.
  2. Ruellia luzoniensis Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 426; Type: BS 44627 Ramos & Edaño (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Anuling, in forests along streams at low elevation, Nov-1924. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Native.
  3. Ruellia philippinensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1690; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; Type: Elmer 12922. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland thickets on stream banks. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  4. Ruellia repens L., Mant. 1 (1767) 89; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 476; ≡ Dipteracanthus repens (L.) Hassk. in Hoeven & de Vriese, Tijdr. 10 (1843) 129; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 656. Distribution: Hong Kong, India, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan. Notes: Throughout the archipelago in most provinces. Low and medium elevation grasslands, thickets, rice paddy embankments, etc. Native.
  5. Ruellia tuberosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 635; Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 361. Distribution: Neotropics. Notes: Occasional as an escape from gardens in Manila and neighboring areas. Naturalized in some parts of the Old World tropics. Naturalized.

Rungia Nees

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & John Paul Collantes, 29 August 2020
  1. Rungia diversiformis Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 472; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, LUZON: Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, NCR, Pangasinan, Rizal, Zambales, PALAWAN. Notes: Thickets and along streams in ravines at low and medium elevation. Native.
  2. Rungia lepida C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 248; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; Type: Merrill 4450 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Sur (in area formerly under the old District of Lepanto), Suyoc to Cervantes, Oct-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pangasinan. Notes: On banks and open grasslands at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1300m. Native.
  3. Rungia membranacea Merr., PJS 11c (1915) Bot. 205; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; Type: BS 24515 Ramos (US, iso), Samar: Catubig River at Tagabiran, low elevation open forest, Feb-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Notes: Lowland forests. Native.
  4. Rungia pectinata (L.) Nees, Prodr. 11 (1847) 470; Rueangsawang et al., Thai Forest Bull. 48 (2020) 66; ≡ Justicia pectinata L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1760) 299. = Rungia parviflora (Retz.) Nees in Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 3 (1832) 110; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; ≡ Justicia parviflora Retz., Obs. v. 9 (1788). Distribution: Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Middle East, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Open grassy slopes, 1500-1900m. Native.
  5. Rungia philippinensis C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 92; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; Type: Cuming 1276. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Lanao. Notes: Forests and thickets, mostly at medium elevation. Native.
  6. Rungia podostachya Bremek., PJS 81 (1952) 134; Type: PNH 11542 Edaño (L, holo; U, iso), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mt Kampalili, forested slopes, 700m, 22-Mar-1949. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao Oriental. Notes: Possibly belongs in Justicia. Native.

Staurogyne Wall.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 June 2021
  1. Staurogyne athroantha Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 238; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 36; Type: Merrill 1215 (L, iso), Palawan: Taytay, May-1913. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, PALAWAN. Native.
  2. Staurogyne capillipes Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 243; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 36; Type: Merrill 7238 (L, holo), Palawan. Sep-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  3. Staurogyne debilis (T.Anderson) C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 467; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 36; ≡ Ebermaiera debilis T.Anderson, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 9 (1867) 452; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming., Philip. (1885) 132; Type: Cuming 1373, Luzon: Albay. = Staurogyne debilis var. angustifolia Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 217; Type: BS 46127 Reillo (L, holo), Basilan, Aug/Sep-1912. = Staurogyne ciliata Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2548; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 467; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 36; Type: PNH 11357 (U), Mindanao: Davao Oriental, Mt Mayo, 1700m, 4-Apr-1949. = Staurogyne debilis var. longifolia Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 217; Type: PNH 3371 Edaño (U, holo), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, 533m, 19-Jan-1948. = Staurogyne debilis var. pubifolia Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 216; Type: Elmer 8708 (L, holo), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Philippines, Solomon Isls, Taiwan, Vietnam. ALABAT, BASILAN, BUSUANGA, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, LUZON: Albay, Apayao, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Laguna, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan, Davao Oriental, MINDORO, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Notes: Low and medium elevation, chiefly along streams in shaded ravines, ascending to 1700m. Native.
  4. Staurogyne elmeri Co ex Pelser, Blumea 66 (2021) 97; ≡ Staurogyne subcordata (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113, nom. illeg., non Benoist; ≡ Gymnostachyum subcordatum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1703; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 481; Type: Elmer 12729 (BISH, BRIT, CAS, F, GH, K, L, MICH, NY, P, PH, U, US), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar, Mar-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Notes: Lowland forests along streams. Native.
  5. Staurogyne merrillii Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 242; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 38; Type: Merrill 7225 (L, holo), Palawan. Sep-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  6. Staurogyne neesii (S.Vidal) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 468; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 38; ≡ Ebermaiera neesii S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 34; Type: Cuming 1083. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Zambales. Notes: Low elevation, along streams. Native.
  7. Staurogyne ophiorrhizoides Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1488; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 468; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 38; Type: Elmer 12364 (US, NY, iso; L, type status not certain), Sibuyan: Magallanes (= Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, Moist, rock-clayey soil of densely wooded gulches along trail to España at 1750ft, south of ridge summit, Apr-1910. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, SIBUYAN. Notes: Forests, 530m. Native.
  8. Staurogyne panayensis Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 214; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 38. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PANAY. Native.
  9. Staurogyne samarensis Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 213; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 39; Type: BS 17534 Ramos (L, holo), Samar, Mar/Apr-1914. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Native.
  10. Staurogyne setigera (Nees) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. (1891) 497; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 39; ≡ Ebermaiera setigera Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 76. Distribution: Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. BALABAC, MINDORO. Native.
    • var. grandis Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 189. = Staurogyne balabacensis Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 358; Type: BS 49718 Ramos & Edano (NY, iso), Balabac: Katakupan, along streams in damp forests at low elevation, 25-Nov-1927. Distribution: BALABAC. Native.
  11. Staurogyne spatulata (Blume) Koord., Exkurs.-Fl. Java 3 (1912) 11; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 39; ≡ Adenosma spatulata Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14 (1826) 757. = Staurogyne rivularis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 248; Fl. Manila (1912) 435; EPFP 3 (1923) 468; Type: Merrill 7396 (L, US, iso), Luzon: Manila, Masambong, along small streams on ledges subject to overflow in high water, Dec-1910. Distribution: Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Java, Laos, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. LUZON: Rizal. Notes: Low elevation, on ledges along small streams. Native.
  12. Staurogyne subcapitata Bremek., Reinwardtia 3 (1955) 190; Daniel & McDade, Aliso 32 (2014) 39. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Zambales. Native.

Strobilanthes Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 19 July 2022
  1. Strobilanthes alternata (Burm.f.) Moylan ex J.R.I.Wood, Novon 23 (2014) 389; ≡ Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7 (1864) 114; ≡ Ruellia alternata Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 135; Type: sine collector 1757 (G-BU, syn). = Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) Hallier f., Nov Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 70 (1897) 199; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 443; EPFP 3 (1923) 471; ≡ Ruellia colorata Blume, Bijdr 3 (1826) 795; Type: from Java: Zollinger 544 (B, G-BOIS, G-DC, syn). Notes: Country of origin unknown. Widely cultivated as an ornamental. Naturalized in the Philippines (Moylan et al. 2002). Naturalized.
  2. Strobilanthes antonii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2550; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; ≡ Semnostachya antonii (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 206; Type: Elmer 13610 (BISH, MICH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, Aug-1912. = Semnostachya leytensis Bremek., PJS 81 (1952) 133; Type: PNH 12154 Edaño (A, L, U), Leyte: Leyte, Ormoc, Mt Mamban, 1163m, Apr-1950. Distribution: Borneo, Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon. Notes: Primary forests, c. 1050m. Native.
  3. Strobilanthes apoensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; ≡ Hypoestes apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2544; Type: Elmer 10722 (A, K, syn; US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. = Strobilanthes sibulanensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 488; ≡ Peristrophe sibulanensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 485; ≡ Hypoestes sibulanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2546; Type: Elmer 11152 (GH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Jul-1909. = Strobilanthes boholensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 487; Type: BS 43256 Ramos (BM, G, K, US, iso), Bohol: Bilar, in damp forest, c. 600m, Oct-1923. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. BOHOL, LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Davao. Conservation status: Least Concern (Wood & Scotland 2009). Native.
  4. Strobilanthes bakeri (Merr.) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 204; ≡ Hemigraphis bakeri Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot 348; EPFP 3 (1923) 471; Type: Baker 3272 (K, lecto), Luzon: Quezon, hills near Malimao, 7-May-1914. = Hemigraphis mindorensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113; Type: Merrill 1785 (B, holo; US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Baco River, Apr-1903. = Hemigraphis panayensis var. merrillii Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 112, nom. inval.; ≡ Hemigraphis panayensis (Merr.) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 112; ≡ Ruellia panayensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 347; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 476; Type: BS 21236 Escritor (K, lecto; US, iso), Panay: Capiz, Jun-1913, according to Merrill (1915), the Panay origin of the type is uncertain and may have been collected in the adjacent island of Romblon; Romblon at that time was under the administrative jurisdiction of the province of Capiz. = Hemigraphis panayensis var. angustifolia Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 113; Type: Martelino & Edano 35499 (L, holo; SING, iso), Panay: Capiz, Libacao. = Hemigraphis tenuispica Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 114; Type: Ramos & Edaño 75387 (U, holo; NY, SING, UC, iso), Catanduanes. Jul/Sep-1928. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Isabela, Quezon, MINDORO, PANAY, ROMBLON, SAMAR. Notes: Lowland streamside forests and possibly thickets. Native.
  5. Strobilanthes baracatanensis (Elmer) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 204, as 'baracatanense'; ≡ Hemigraphis baracatanense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2543; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 471; Type: Elmer 11070 (NY, lecto; A, BM, BP, E, L, MO, BISH, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, forested ravines, c. 450m, Jul-1909. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao, Davao del Sur. Native.
  6. Strobilanthes blumeana (Nees) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 205; ≡ Hemigraphis blumeana (Nees) Boerl., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1858) 658; ≡ Ruellia blumeana Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 149; Type: from Indonesia: Zollinger 343 (G-DC, lecto; A, BM, K, S, isolecto). = Hemigraphis hirsuta var. crenata Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1693; Type: Elmer 12678 (PNH, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, E, F, GH, K, MO 2 sheets, NY, U, US, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan, Brookes Point, Addison Peak, Feb-1911. = Hemigraphis culionensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 102; Type: Merrill 536 (B, holo; K, NY, iso), Culion. = Hemigraphis palawanensis Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 15; Type: PNH 167 Edaño (U, holo; PNH, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Bacungan, 26-Mar-1947. = Hemigraphis palawanensis var. hirsuta Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 15; Type: PNH 298 Edaño (PNH, holo; A, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Babuyan, low elevation forest, Mar-1947. Distribution: Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra. CULION, LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Forests at low and medium elevation. Native.
  7. Strobilanthes bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3678; Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 203; Type: Elmer 16884 (PNH, lecto; BM, K, L, NY, U, UC, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Apr-1916. = Hemigraphis pachyphylla Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 453; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; Type: BS 33794 (or 33974?) Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte, Paracale, Dec-1918. = Hemigraphis samarensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 109; Type: Jagor 962 (B, holo), Samar. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Camarines Norte, Quezon, Sorsogon, SAMAR. Notes: Thickets and recent clearings at low elevation. The name Strobilanthes pachyphylla is occupied by Strobilanthes pachyphylla C.B.Clarke. Native.
  8. Strobilanthes cincinnalis C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 249; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; Type: BS 4574 Merrill (US, iso; NY), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, 2250m, Nov-1905. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES, LUZON: Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental. Notes: Mossy forests, 2000-2400m. Native.
  9. Strobilanthes cumingiana (Nees) Y.F.Deng & J.R.I.Wood, J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 18 (2010) 483; ≡ Hemigraphis cumingiana (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 471; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 656; ≡ Ruellia cumingiana Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 148; Type: Cuming 1310 (K, lecto; BM, E, K, isolecto), Luzon. = Hemigraphis strigosa (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 474; ≡ Ruellia strigosa Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 148; Type: Cuming 588 (K, lecto; BM, K, isolecto), Luzon. Distribution: Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Quezon, MINDANAO, PALAWAN, PANAY. Notes: Lowland primary forests. Native.
  10. Strobilanthes diversifolia (Elmer) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 204, nom. inval.; ≡ Hemigraphis diversifolia Elmer ex Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 120; ≡ Hemigraphis diversifolia Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3674, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 15398 (NY, lecto; BM, BO, GH, K, L, MO, U, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, loose soil of more or less shaded places, Dec-1915. = Hemigraphis proteus Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 104; Type: BS 20480 Ramos (L, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Laguna, San Antonio, Feb-1913. = Hemigraphis subtinctoria Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3674, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; Type: Elmer 15430 (NY, lecto; BM, BO, GH, L, MO, U, US, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Jul-1916. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon. Notes: Pelser (28-Aug-22): I don't think that the combination Strobilanthes diversifolia was validly published, because Deng (2019) did not provide a full and direct reference to the author and place of valid publication of the basionym, i.e. Hemigraphis diversifolia Elmer ex Bremek. Instead, Deng (2019) only mentioned Elmer's publication (Elmer 1939) in which the name Hemigraphis diversifolia Elmer is invalidly published, because it does not include a Latin diagnosis. Native.
  11. Strobilanthes elmeri Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 204; ≡ Hemigraphis setosa Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 348; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 474; Type: Elmer 7248 (NY, lecto;BO, E, K, isolecto), Leyte: Palo. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, PALAWAN, PANAY, SAMAR. Notes: Moylan et al. 2002: endemic to Leyte. Low elevation, in forests and along streams. Native.
  12. Strobilanthes fruticulosa (C.B.Clarke) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 205; ≡ Hemigraphis fruticulosa C.B.Clarke, PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 247; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 472; Type: Merrill 4465 (K, lecto, NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: District of Lepanto (= vicinity of present-day Mountain Province and Ilocos Sur provincial borders): Cervantes to Mankayan, Nov-1905. = Hemigraphis nummulariifolia Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 455, as 'nummularifolia'; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; Type: BS 33031 Ramos (BM, lecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, between Bangui and Claveria, on dry open banks, 30-Aug-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Pampanga, Rizal, MINDANAO: Surigao. Notes: Low to medium elevation, on cliffs, ravines and steep banks and open dry places at low elevation. Native.
  13. Strobilanthes fusca J.R.I.Wood, Kew Bull. 64 (2009) 11; Type: Reynoso, Alvarez & Fernando PPI 4164 (K, holo), Luzon: Zambales, Masinloc, Coto, 2-Feb-1992. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Conservation status: Endangered (Wood & Scotland 2009). Native.
  14. Strobilanthes halconensis Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 302; EPFP 3 (1923) 475; ≡ Semnostachya halconensis (Merr.) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 208; Type: BS 5586 Merrill (US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, Nov-1906. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, MINDORO. Notes: Primary forests, c. 900m. Native.
  15. Strobilanthes klossii (S.Moore) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 204; ≡ Hemigraphis klossii S.Moore, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 9 (1916) 133; Type: from Indonesia, Kloss s.n. (BM, lecto; K, isolecto). = Hemigraphis rivularis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 488; Type: BS 43268 Ramos (UC, lecto; BM, BO, K, PNH, UC, US, isolecto), Bohol: Bohol, Batuan River, in the bed of small streams in forests, c. 300m, Sep-1923. Distribution: Java, Pacific Ocean, Philippines. BOHOL. Native.
  16. Strobilanthes linearifolia (Bremek.) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 205; ≡ Hemigraphis linearifolia Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 105; Type: BS 8237 Merrill (L, holo), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Nov/Dec-1911. = Hemigraphis ciliata S.Moore, J. Bot. 58 (1920) 191; Type: from Papua New Guinea: White 796 (BM, lecto). = Hemigraphis lanceolata Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 451; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; Type: BS 5413 Merrill (NY, lecto; L, US, isolecto), Balut Island, Oct-1906. = Hemigraphis halconensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 105; Type: BS 10687 Ramos & Edaño (L, holo; K, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, Mar-1922. = Hemigraphis simulans Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 106; Type: BS 22084 Ramos (L, holo), Luzon: Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog, Nov-Dec 1913. = Hemigraphis oblongibractea Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 108; Type: BS 11188 McGregor (L, holo; US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Dupax, Mar/Apr-1912. = Hemigraphis rosmarinifolia Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 115; Type: BS 13207 Foxworthy & Ramos (L, holo), Luzon: Quezon, Quinatacutan, Mar-1911. = Hemigraphis lancibractea Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 16; Type: PNH 3329 Edaño (U, holo; A, PNH, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental, Mt Halcon, along Catuiran River, on forested slope, 833m, 22-Feb-1948. Distribution: Australia, Java, New Guinea, Philippines. BALUT, BOHOL, GUIMARAS, LUZON: ?Aurora (photos), Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, MINDORO, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR. Native.
  17. Strobilanthes longipetiolata (Merr.) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 204; ≡ Hemigraphis longipetiolata Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 488; Type: BS 43111 Ramos (UC, lecto; BM, BO, K, SING, US, isolecto), Bohol: Kalingohan, open forest on rocky slopes, 1000ft, 17-Aug-1923. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Notes: Open forest on rocky slopes (judging from the locality, possibly on limestone), c. 300m. Native.
  18. Strobilanthes mcgregorii Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 443 (2020) 300; ≡ Strobilanthes mediocris (Bremek.) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 205, nom. illeg., non Benoist; ≡ Hemigraphis mediocris Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 107; Type: BS 11351 McGregor (L, holo). Luzon: Nueva Vizcaya, Dupax, Mar-Apr 1912. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Kalinga, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya. Native.
  19. Strobilanthes mearnsii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 322; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Mountain Province. Notes: Wet thickets and forests, 1400-2000m. Native.
  20. Strobilanthes merrillii C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 92; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; ≡ Semnostachya merrillii (C.B.Clarke) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 208. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Benguet, Laguna, MINDORO. Notes: Ridges on mossy forests, 1000-1300m. Native.
  21. Strobilanthes pachys C.B.Clarke ex Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 456; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; ≡ Semnostachya pachys (C.B.Clarke ex Merr.) Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 208; Type: Vidal 3012 (K, holo), Luzon: Caraballo Sur mtns, according to Merrill (1922) probably collected along trail between Dupax (in Nueva Vizcaya) and Carranglan (Nueva Ecija). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (photos), Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Rizal. Notes: Forests, 900m. Native.
  22. Strobilanthes palawanensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1686; Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sec. 2, 41 (1944) 232; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475; ≡ Hymenochlaena palawanensis (Elmer) Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 11; ≡ Goldfussia palawanensis (Elmer) Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2. 41 (1944) 232; Type: Elmer 13249, Palawan: Mt Pulgar (= Thumb Peak). Distribution: Philippines, Singapore. PALAWAN. Notes: Primary forests, 200-500m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Native.
  23. Strobilanthes pauciflora (Merr.) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 204; ≡ Hemigraphis pauciflora Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot 61; EPFP 3 (1923) 473; Type: BS 27543 Ramos (NY, lecto; BM, K, US isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui, along streams in forest at low elevation, 9-Mar-1917. = Hemigraphis hirsutissima Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot 60; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; Type: BS 27258 Ramos (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Burgos, Feb/Mar-1917. = Hemigraphis benguettensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 107; Type: Elmer 8469 (L, holo; BO, E, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Benguet, Baguio, Mar-1907. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL, CATANDUANES, LUZON: Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDORO, PANAY, ROMBLON. Notes: Low elevation streams, on boulders. Native.
  24. Strobilanthes pluriformis C.B.Clarke, Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1906) 93; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 475. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, MINDORO. Notes: Mossy forests, 1000-2000m. Native.
  25. Strobilanthes reptans (G.Forst.) Moylan ex Y.F.Deng & J.R.I.Wood, Fl. China 19 (2011) 390; ≡ Hemigraphis reptans (G.Forst.) T.Anderson ex Hemsl., Bot. Voy. Challenger 1 (1884) 173; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 658; ≡ Ruellia reptans G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 44; Type: from Vanuatu: Forster s.n. (BM, lecto; K, P, isolecto). = Hemigraphis parabolica (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 472; ≡ Ruellia parabolica Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 144; Type: Cuming 571 (K, lecto; BM, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna. = Hemigraphis primulifolia (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 473; Hsieh & Huang in Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 658; ≡ Hemigraphis reptans var. primulifolia (Nees) Hallier f., Nov Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 17 (1897) 208; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 443; ≡ Ruellia primulifolia Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 144; Type: Haenke s.n. (PR, lecto), Sorsogon. = Hemigraphis oblongifolia Merr., PJS 11 c (1916) Bot 204; EPFP 3 (1923) 472; Type: BS 24240 Ramos (L, lecto; BM, GH, US, isolecto), Samar: Catubig River, Feb/Mar-1916. = Hemigraphis rapifera Hallier f. ex Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. 19 (1898) 555, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 473; Type: from Sulawesi. = Hemigraphis cardiophylla Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 359; Type: BS 44041 Ramos & Edaño (UC, lecto; BM, isolecto). = Hemigraphis tayabensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 119; Type: BS 13103 Foxworthy & Ramos (L, holo), Luzon: Quezon, Guinayangan, Feb-1911. = Hemigraphis lanaensis Bremek., Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Amst., Afd. Natuurk., sect. 2, 41 (1944) 122; Type: Clemens s.n. (B, holo), Mindanao: Lanao, Camp Keithley. = Hemigraphis diffusa Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 14; Type: Edano 272 (U, holo), Palawan: Puerto Princesa. = Hemigraphis parvifolia Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 18; Type: PNH 10504 Mendoza & Convocar (A, holo (according to L.L. Co); L, lecto (according to Moylan et al. 2002); PNH, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte, Mt Kabatuan, on rocks along forested slopes, 680m, 22-Mar-1949. = Hemigraphis polillensis Bremek., PJS 80 (1952) 17; Type: PNH 8953 RB Fox (PNH, holo, A, U, iso), Polillo: NE part, Karlagan, forest, 19-Nov-1948. = Hemigraphis sublobata Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 591; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 474; Type: Elmer 9665 (L, MO, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mtns, Mar-1908. Distribution: Moluccas, Philippines, Ryukyu Isls, Sulawesi, Taiwan. ALABAT, BABUYAN ISLS, BALABAC, CEBU, GUIMARAS, LEYTE, LUZON: Apayao, Bataan, Cagayan, Cavite, Laguna, Mountain Province, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Rizal, Sorsogon, Zambales, MASBATE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Surigao, Zamboanga, NEGROS, PALAWAN, PANAY, POLILLO, SAMAR, TAWI-TAWI. Notes: Lowland and medium elevation forests, shaded cliffs and small stream embankments, streams and gullies, old clearings, etc., etc. Common. Native.
  26. Strobilanthes rhytiphylla (Nees) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 206; ≡ Hemigraphis rhytiphylla (Nees) Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 153; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 473; ≡ Ruellia rhytiphylla Nees in DC., Prodr. 11 (1847) 150; Type: Cuming 1076 (or 1016?) (K, lecto; BM, E-GL, K, L, M, P, WU, isolecto). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Albay, Benguet, Camarines Norte, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Mountain Province, Pangasinan. Notes: Low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m, in open places, steep banks, thickets, etc. Native.
  27. Strobilanthes viridis (Merr.) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 206; ≡ Hemigraphis viridis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot 59; EPFP 3 (1923) 474; Type: BS 27587 Ramos (NY, lecto; BM, BO, K, L, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Bangui, Feb/Mar-1917. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Ilocos Norte, Kalinga, Nueva Vizcaya. Notes: Low elevation forests. Native.
  28. Strobilanthes zwickeyae (Moylan) Y.F.Deng, Phytotaxa 404 (2019) 205; ≡ Hemigraphis zwickeyae Moylan, Kew Bull. 57 (2002) 805; Type: Zwickey 353 (GH, holo; US, iso), Mindanao: Lanao, vicinity of Abaga, elevation below 400m, 13-Oct-1938. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora, Tayabas, MINDANAO: Lanao, Lanao del Norte. Native.

Thunbergia Retz.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser & Wally Suarez, 16 April 2021
  1. Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims, Bot. Mag. 52 (1825) t. 2591; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 468. Distribution: Africa. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal. Notes: Now pantropic; thoroughly naturalized in waste places and thickets in the lowlands. Also cultivated. Invasive species (CABI 2017). Naturalized.
  2. Thunbergia benguettensis Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 76; Type: R.S. Williams 935 (NY), Luzon: Benguet, Kias (present-day Baguio), Sep-1904. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Native.
  3. Thunbergia brachypoda Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 59; Type: Elmer 13076 (L, holo; NY, iso). Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Native.
  4. Thunbergia brachytyla Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 72; Type: BS 98 Piper (L), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Norte, (indicated as Province of Misamis in label), Dapitan, Apr-1911. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Norte. Native.
  5. Thunbergia fragrans Roxb., Fl. Coromandel. 1 (1795) 47; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 468. = Thunbergia subsagittata Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 518; Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 963 (US, illustrative specimen), Luzon: Bataan, Lamao, Dec-1915. = Thunbergia subsagittata var. hirsutifolia Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 75; Type: Warburg 11726 (NY), Luzon: Cagayan. Distribution: India to Australia. Notes: Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation thickets. Variable in vegetative characters. Native.
  6. Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 34; Hort. Beng. (1814) 45, nom. inval., nom. nud.; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 439; EPFP 3 (1923) 469. Distribution: India. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal. Notes: Commonly planted in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Naturalized in secondary forest in Antipolo and Mt Makiling (W. Suarez, 16-Apr-21 pers. comm.). Naturalized.
  7. Thunbergia ilocana Bremek., Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., Sect. 2 50(4) (1955) 77; Type: BS 32756 Ramos (L, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte, Burgos, Jul-1918. Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Native.
  8. Thunbergia mysorensis (Wight) T.Anderson, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 9 (1867) 448; ≡ Hexacentris mysorensis Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3 (1844) t. 871. Distribution: India. LUZON: Laguna. Notes: Naturalized in secondary forest in Mt Makiling (W. Suarez, 16-Apr-21 pers. comm.). Naturalized.

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) T.Anderson, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 7 (1864) 18; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 468; ≡ Meyenia erecta Benth., Niger Fl. (1849) 476. Distribution: Africa. Notes: Introduced in the Philippines around 1900, cultivated as an ornamental but nowhere spontaneous. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  2. Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl., Gard. Chron. (1856) 260; Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 469. Distribution: Malay Peninsula. Notes: Occasionally planted in the Philippines for ornamental purposes. Cultivated, not naturalized.

Thyrsacanthus Moric. (Not native)

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 September 2020

Cultivated, not naturalized

  1. Thyrsacanthus nitidus (Jacq.) Nees, Prodr. 11 (1847) 327; ≡ Odontonema nitidum (Jacq.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 494; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 437; ?EPFP 3 (1923) 483; ≡ Justicia nitida Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. (1760) 11. Distribution: Caribbean. Notes: Not native to the Philippines, cultivated. Cultivated, not naturalized.

References