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Violaceae

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 August 2012

Hybanthus Jacq.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 November 2017

Photos
  1. Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F.Muell., Fragm. Phyt. Austr. 10 (1976) 81; --Ionidium enneaspermum (L.) Vent., Jard. Malm. (1803) t. 27; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106; --Viola enneasperma L. Sp. PI. (1753) 937. Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, SE China, Indochina, Java, Madura, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Golo Isl, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia, Thursday Isl, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Cotabato.

Ionidium Vent. = Hybanthus

Rinorea Aubl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 November 2017

Photos
  1. Rinorea bengalensis (Wall.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia bengalensis Wall., Trans. Med. Phys. Soc. Calc. 7 (1835) 224. --Rinorea fasciculata (Turcz.) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 286; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Alsodeia fasciculata (Turcz.) Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou. 36 i (1863) 559; --Pentaloba fasciculata Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou. 27 ii (1854) 342. --Rinorea glandulosa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 286; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Gelonium glandulosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 918. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indochina, China (Hainan), Andaman Isls, throughout Malesia (but absent in S Sumatra and Java), Australia, Melanesia, Caroline Isls, Philippines.
  2. Rinorea horneri (Korth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia horneri Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1 (1848) 360. --Rinorea acuminata Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 201; EPFP 3 (1923) 103. --Rinorea copelandii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 45; EPFP 3 (1923) 103. Thailand, scattered throughout Malesia except Java and Lesser Sunda Isls, Solomon Isls, Philippines.
  3. Rinorea javanica (Blume) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia javanica (Blume) Miq., FL. Ind. Bat. 1, 2 (1859) 117; --Prosthesia javanica Blume Bijdr. (1825) 867. --Rinorea formicaria (Elmer) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 286; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Alsodeia formicaria Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1850; --Type: Elmer 12886 (A, BM, K, NSW, P, U, US), Palawan: Mt. Pulgar, Mar-1911. Indochina, Thailand, Malaysia, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  4. Rinorea macrophylla (Decne.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 42; --Alsodeia macrophylla Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 (1834) 468. --Rinorea palawanensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 210; EPFP 3 (1923) 104; --Type: BS 252 Bermejos (K, US), Palawan, Dec-1905. --Rinorea macrophylla var. mollis Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 104. Indochina, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines. CEBU, CULION, GUIMARAS, JOLO, PALAWAN. Photos
  5. Rinorea niccolifera Fernando, Phytokeys 37 (2014) 4; --Type: Fernando 3016 (LBC, holo; CAHUP, K, PNH, SING, iso), Luzon: Zambales, Mun. Sta. Cruz, Lucapon, 330m, 1-Apr-2012. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Ultramafic soils. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Viola L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 November 2017

Photos
  1. Viola arcuata Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 58; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 104. --Viola semilunaris (Maxim.) W.Becker var. philippinarum W.Becker, Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 342 (1916) 231; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106. --Viola toppingii Eimer, LPB 2 (1908) 504. India, Myanmar, China, Indochina, Sumatra, Java, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON.
  2. Viola betonicifolia Sm. in Rees, Cycl. 37 (1919) 7. Himalayas, India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Indochina, Australia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  3. Viola diffusa Ging. in DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 293; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Himalayas, China, Indochina, Japan, Taiwan, New Guinea, Philippines. Photos
  4. Viola inconspicua Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 57; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Himalayas, Myanmar, China, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines. LUZON.
  5. Viola mearnsii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 201; EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON, NEGROS, MINDANAO.
  6. Viola merrilliana W.Becker, Beihefte Bot. Centralbl. 342 (1916) 234; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  7. Viola philippica Cav., Icon. 6 (1800) 19. --Viola edanoi W.Becker, PJS 19 (1921) 722; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 105. Himalayas, India, Mongolia, China, Myanmar, Korea, Japan, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON, MINDANAO.
  8. Viola rupicola Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 324; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON.

Doubtful species:

  1. Viola ramosiana W.Becker, PJS 19 (1921) 716; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 106. Note by L.L.Co: Holotype lost. Isotype in US not agreeing with the original description and may be referable to Viola philippica which also occurs in the type locality of BS 37548.

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Fernando, ES, MO Quimado & AI Doronila. 2014. Rinorea niccolifera (Violaceae), a new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Luzon Island, Philippines. Phytokeys 37: 1-13

Jacobs, M. & DM Moore. 1971. Violaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 7: 179-212

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 18 November 2017