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Rosaceae

Eriobotrya Lindl.

Photos 
  1. Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindley, Trans. Linn. Soc. 13 (1822) 102; --Mespilus japonicus Thunb., Fl. Japon. (1784) 206; --Type: from Japan. Native in SE China, there and in Japan cultivated for many years. Now throughout the tropics and subtropics cultivated as a fruit tree. In the Philippines, grown in N LUZON: Mountain Province, particularly common in the vicinity of Sagada, 1400-1500m. Loquat. Not naturalized? Photos

Photinia Lindl.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2017

Photos
  1. Photinia nussia (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 429; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 314; --Pyrus nussia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal (1825) 237. --Stranvaesia ambigua (Merr.) Nakai, J. Arn. Arb. 5 (1924) 72; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; --Eriobotrya ambigua Merr., Gov’t. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 18; EPFP 2 (1923) 226; --Type: FB 2796 Meyer, Luzon. --Eriobotrya oblongifolia Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 102; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 226; --Type: FB 4680 Mearns & Hutchinson, Mindanao. E Himalayas, NE India, N Myanmar, N Thailand, N Laos, S China, but not recorded from Taiwan, Philippines. In the Philippines up to 2500m. Photos
  2. Photinia serratifolia (Desf.) Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 424; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 315; --Crataegus serratifolia Desf., Tabl. École Bot., ed. 3 (Cat. Pl. Horti Paris.) (1829) 408. --Photinia serrulata Lindl., Trans. Linn. Soc. 13 (1821) 103, excl. syn. Crataegus glabra Thunb.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 226. S India, China, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, ?Sumatra. LUZON, MINDANAO. Mossy forests, c. 2500m. Photos

Potentilla L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2017

Photos
  1. Potentilla indica (Andrews) Th.Wolf in Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitt.-Eur. Fl. 6, 1 (1904) 661; --Kalkm., Blumea 16 (1968) 344; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 291; --Duchesnea indica (Andrews.) Focke in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 3 (1888) 33; --Fragaria indica Andrews, Bot. Repos. 7 (1807) t. 479. S, SE and E Asia. Probable indigenous in Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, and the Philippines. Cultivated as an ornamental, escaped from cultivation or at least doubtfully indigenous in Sumatra, Malaya, and Singapore. Also established in many places in Europe, America and Africa. Mostly in disturbed habitats: roadside, plantations, rarely in forest, rather often in damp and waste places., 700-2300m. Photos
  2. Potentilla papuana Focke, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen 13 (1895) 162; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 294; --Type: from New Guinea. New Guinea, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Tabayoc). Alpine or subalpine grasslands.
  3. Potentilla parvula Hook.f. ex Staff in Hook., Icon. Plant. 4, 3 (Jan-1894) pl. 2294; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 294. --Potentilla philippinensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 480; --Type: Clemens 5006 (UC, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Pulag, c. 2800m, seen in only one place on an old trail in the summit grasslands, associated with Schoenus (Cyperaceae), 24 to 27-Feb-1925. Borneo (Sabah, Mt Kinabalu), Philippines, Sulawesi (Mt Rante Mario). LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag). Subalpine grassland, c. 2800m.

Prunus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 September 2017

Photos
  1. Prunus arborea (Blume) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 329; --Polydontia arborea Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 17 (1826) 1105. Photos
  2. Prunus clementis (Merr.) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 70; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 334; --Pygeum clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 227; EPFP 2 (1923) 232; --Type: Clemens 760 (lecto); Clemens 990; both Mindanao. --Pygeum apoense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1623; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; --Type: Elmer 11729, Mindanao. Philippines, Sulawesi (N peninsula and C part). MINDANAO. Primary and secondary forests.
  3. Prunus fragrans (Elmer) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 74; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 335; --Pygeum fragrans Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 475; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; --Type: Elmer 7504 (lecto), Luzon. --Pygeum coccineum (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1621; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; --Parinarium coccineum Elmer; --Type: Elmer 9787, Negros. --Pygeum megaphyllum Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1621; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 233; --Type: BS 14923 Ramos, Luzon. Philippines, ?Lanyu. BABUYAN ISLS (CAMIGUIN), LUZON, NEGROS, PANAY. Primary and secondary forests, (150-)600-2100(-2500)m. Photos
  4. Prunus grisea (Blume) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 58; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 338; --Pygeum griseum Blume, Mél. Bot. nr. 2 (1855) 11; --Muell. in Walp. Ann. 4 (1857) 642; --Type: from Java. Photos
  5. Prunus javanica (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1, 1 (1855) 365; --Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 47; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 328; --Cerasus javanica Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Indië 2 (1851) 309; --Type: from Java. --Prunus junghuhnianus Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1855) 402; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 234; --Type: from Java. S Andaman, Peninsular Myanmar, Thailand, S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Pulau Tioman, W & C Java, Bali, Borneo (Sabah, Kalimantan, also Bunguran Is), Sulawesi (Minahasa, Bonthain), Moluccas (Sula Isls, Buru), New Guinea (Vogelkop; Hollandia), Philippines. PALAWAN. Photos
  6. Prunus kinabaluensis Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 64; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 339; --Type: from Sabah. Borneo (Sabah, Ranau District), Philippines. LUZON. Forests, 1300-2400m.
  7. Prunus marsupialis Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 71; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 341l --Pygeum glandulosum Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 226; EPFP 2 (1923) 233; --Type: R.S. Williams 642 (lecto); 25 syntypes, all Philippines. --Pygeum pubescens Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 359; EPFP 2 (1923) 234; --Type: Wenzel 333 (lecto), Philippines. Both the epithet glandulosum and pubescens are not available in Prunus. LUZON, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR. Forests and forest edges, 0-c. 1100m. Photos
  8. Prunus pulgarensis (Elmer) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 67; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 344; --Pygeum pulgarense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1626; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 234; --Type: Elmer 13200, Palawan. --Pygeum monticolum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 312; EPFP 2 (1923) 233; --Type: Whitford 1203, Luzon. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN. Montane forests, c. 1000-1200m. Note by L.L.Co: Known only from four collections, no new material of this species has been collected since 1965. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  9. Prunus rubiginosa (Elmer) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 72; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 345; --Pygeum rubiginosum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1624; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 234; --Type: Elmer 11857 (holo); 14067, both Mindanao. --Pygeum elmerianum Koehne in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 51 (1913) 206, 218; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 232; --Type: Elmer 12210, Sibuyan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, MINDANAO. Forests, 250-1200m. Note by L.L.Cp: Known only from 1 or 2 specimens in each island. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  10. Prunus subglabra (Merr.) Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 87; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 347; --Pygeum subglabrum Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 395; --Type: BS 45014 Ramos & Edaño (UC, holo; L, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Pulag, mossy forest, c. 2700m, 27-Feb-1925. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag; Mt Tabayoc). Mossy forests, 2400-2700m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

 Doubtful occurrence in the Philippines:

  1. Prunus spicata Kalkm., Blumea 13 (1965) 69; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 346; --Type: from Sabah. LUZON. A doubtful sterile specimen seen by Kalkman from MINDORO.

Incompletely known:

  1. Prunus ramiflorum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 447; EPFP 2 (1923) 234; --Type: Vanoverbergh 2820, Luzon: Mountain Province, Bauco, in forests, c. 1500m, 4-Apr-1913. LUZON: Mountain Province. Forests, 1400m. Not treated in Kalkman’s Flora Malesiana revision. But according to Merrill (1914), “a characteristic species, recognizable by its eglandular leaves which are comparatively small and few-nerved, and its rather congested, paniculate, short inflorescences which are borne on the larger branches below the leaves, not on the ultimate branchlets”.
  2. Prunus sp. C. Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 350. --Prunus luzoniensis Merr. & Quisumb. in sched., based on PNH 4337 Celestino. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag). Partly open field, close to stream, 2000m. Up to now the only Malesian specimen belonging to subgenus Padus.

Non-naturalized cultivated species:

  1. Prunus armeniaca L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 474. Occasionally cultivated in the Cordillera Highlands of N LUZON. Apricot. Photos
  2. Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Beitr. Entw. Pragm. Gesch. 1 (1801) 30; --Amygdalus persica L., Sp. Pl. 1 (1753) 472. Native of China, cultivation spread from there, now cultivated wherever the climate is suitable. In Malesia rarely cultivated in montane areas. In the Philippines, grown to a limited scale in the Cordillera highlands. Peach. Photos

 Pygeum Gaertn. = Prunus

Rhaphiolepis Lindl.

Photos
  1. Rhaphiolepis philippinensis (S.Vidal) Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 434; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 318; --Eriobotrya philippinensis S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 123; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 226; --Type: Vidal 1350 (syn), 1353 (syn), both Luzon. --Eriobotrya luzonensis (Merr.) Nakai, J. Arnold Arb. 5 (1924) 69; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; --Photinia luzonensis Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 17 (1904) 18; EPFP 2 (1923) 226; --Type: Merrill 3223, Luzon. --Eriobotrya acuminatissima Nakai, J. Arnold Arb. 5 (1924) 71; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 242; --Type: BS 35622 Martelino & Edaño, Panay. Philippines, Borneo (Sabah). In forests, 300-2600m. Also on ultramafics near sea level. Photos

Rosa L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Rosa luciae Franch. & Rochebr. ex Crépin, Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 10 (1871) 324; --Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 284; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (199) 305; --Type: from Japan. --Rosa philippinensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 260, incl. var. depauperata Merr.; EPFP 2 (1923) 231; --Type: Elmer 5794. Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Isls, E China, Taiwan, N Philippines. LUZON. Thickets, 1200-1700m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Rosa transmorrisonensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 3 (1913) 97; --Kalkm., Blumea 21 (1973) 284; Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 11 (199) 305; --Type: from Taiwan. --Rosa luzoniensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 259; including var. parvifolia Merr.; --Type: BS 31876 (syn), Mearns 4300 (syn), BS 8336 McGregor (syn), Luzon: Benguet prov., Pauai. Taiwan, N Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Thickets, c. 1200m and higher. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).

Rubus L.

Photos
  1. Rubus benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 296; LPB 2 (1908) 449; --Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 66; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 337; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 268; --Type: Elmer 8383 (K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, ‘in rock crevices of limestone outcroppings in the pine region at 4500ft’, Mar-1907. Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah), N Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Benguet (Baguio), Isabela (Mt Moises). Montane thickets, on limestone at c. 1300m in Benguet. Photos
  2. Rubus clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 139; --Kalkm., Blumea 32 (1987) 325; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 253; --Rubus lucens Focke ssp. clementis (Merr.) Focke, Bibl. Bot. 72 (1911) 213; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 228; --Type: M.S. Clemens 740 (PNH, holo, lost; K, US and as Clemens s.n. in G, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley. N Sumatra, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan), N & C Sulawesi and Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon (Mt Dumalucpihan).
  3. Rubus copelandii Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. 3 (1906) 194, as ‘copelandi’; EPFP 2 (1923) 227; --Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 98; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 259; --Type: Merrill 4810 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Pauai. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. More or less open spots in mossy forest, forest edges and thickets, 1700-2450m. Photos
  4. Rubus cumingii Kuntze, Meth. Speciesbeschr. (1879) 72; --Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 58; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 332; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992)   271; --Type: Cuming s.n. (B, holo), Philippines. Philippines. Known only from the type which has no indicated definite locality on the label. According to Focke, this comes from Luzon.
  5. Rubus edanoi Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 14; EPFP 2 (1923) 227, as ‘edanoii’; --Type: BS 26505 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan. Mossy forest, c. 300m, 6-Sep-1916. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Known only from the type. According to Merrill (1918), this is allied to Rubus cumingii Kuntze, from which it is distinguished at once, among other characters, by its sharply acuminate leaves.
  6. Rubus ellipticus Sm. in Rees, Cyclop. (1815) 30; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; --Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 109; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 260; --Type: from Nepal. Sri Lanka, India to S China and Vietnam, N Philippines. Introduced in Java, Australia, Hawaii, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Africa and possibly elsewhere. LUZON: Benguet. Montane oak forest, pine forest and in secondary growth, 1000-2400m. Photos
  7. Rubus fraxinifolius Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méth. 6 (1806) 242; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; --Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 87; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 261; --Type: from Java. --Rubus fraxinifolius Poir. var. haightii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 461; --Type: a Mearns specimen from Pauai (‘Mr. Haight’s Place’), Luzon. This may be BS 4459 Mearns, cited by Merrill under R. merrillii. --Rubus merrillii Focke, Bibl. Bot. 72 (1911) 153; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 228; --Type: BS 862 Merrill or BS  6637, Luzon: Benguet prov., Pauai. Taiwan, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Bismarck Archipelago. N LUZON to MINDANAO. More or less open sites such as forest edges and gaps, along trails, streambanks, abandoned cultivations, etc, 0-2500m. Photos
  8. Rubus cf. glomeratus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1111; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 377; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 272. --Rubus vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 448; EPFP 2 (1923) 230; --Type: Vanoverbergh 2683 (PNH, holo, lost; K, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, S Sulawesi, New Guinea, New Britain. Rubus vanoverberghii Merr. is known from LUZON: Mountain Province, in forests, c. 1700m.
  9. Rubus heterosepalus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 387; EPFP 2 (1923) 228; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 344; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 273; --Type: BS 37609 Ramos & Edaño (PNH, holo, ?lost; A, K, L, US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt  Polis, mossy forest, 1800m, Feb-1920. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province-Ifugao border (Mt Polis), Ifugao (Banawe). Mossy forest and associated thickets, 1800-1900m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  10. Rubus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 Suppl. 1 (1906) 195; --Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 452; --Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 59; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 228; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 328; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 274; --Type: Merrill 4596 (PNH, holo, lost; BO, K, L, NY, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Data, Nov-1905. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Mt Pulag). Mossy forest and associated clearings, c. 2000- 2500m. Photos
  11. Rubus mearnsii Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 448; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 353; --Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 74; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 228; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 341; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 275; --Type: BS 4304 Mearns (?lost), Luzon: Benguet prov., Pauai near Mr Haights’ place, Jul-1907. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Pauai; Mt Nangaoto; Mt Pulag; Mt Singakalsa). Reported from mossy forest, but seen along roadside clearings, c. 2200-2400m. Kalkman (1984) hints at some possibility that this taxon might be conspecific with Rubus benguetensis Elmer.  
  12. Rubus moluccanus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1197; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 346; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 275; --Type: Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 5 (1747) 88, pl. 47, Fig. 2 (lecto).
  13. Rubus niveus Thunb., Diss. Rubo (1813) 9; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; --Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 107; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 264; --Type: from Java. Sri Lanka, Kashmir to Vietnam, Taiwan, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, N Philippines, Sulawesi.
  14. Rubus pectinellus Maxim., Mél. Biol. Acad. St. Pétersb. 8 (1872) 324 (=Bull. Acad. St. Pétersb. 17); --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; --Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 78; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 284; --Type: from Japan. SE China (Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Guizhou), Taiwan, Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Yakushima), Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Bubonbilit), Abra, Mountain Province (Bontoc; Mt Data), Ifugao (Mt Polis), Benguet (Mt Tabayoc; Mt Pulag; Pauai; Baguio; Mt Sto. Tomas), Quezon (Mt Banahaw), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Lipa), Davao (Mt Apo). Primary and secondary forests, also in mossy forest, c. 750-2750m. Photos
  15. Rubus perfulvus Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 386; EPFP 2 (1923) 229; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 374; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 280; --Type: BS 38566 Ramos & Edaño, Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Mt Lipa. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Lipa). Only known from the type collection.
  16. Rubus pirifolius Sm., Pl. Icon. Hact. Ined. 3 (1791) t. 61; --Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 72 (1910) 64; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 516; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 333; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 280; --Type: from Java. --Rubus philippinensis Focke in Elmer & Focke, LPB 5 (1913) 1617; --Focke, Bibl. Bot. 17, 83 (1914) 28; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 229; --Type: Elmer 13606 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, BM, BO, GH, K, L, NY, P, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, ‘moist stony soil of dense woods at 3750ft or between Duros & Cawilanan peaks’, Aug-1912. --Rubus brevipetalus Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 450; --Type: Elmer 10099 (PNH, holo, lost; A, BISH, BM, BO, K, L, NY, US, iso), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, ‘in humid woods at 4000ft’, May-1908. Thailand, Laos, S Vietnam, S China (Sichuan; Guangxi; Guangdong), Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok; Flores), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), LEYTE: Leyte (Cabalian), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Agusan del Norte, Davao (Mt Apo). 900-1200m, forest and forest edges. Photos
  17. Rubus rolfei S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. (1885) 171; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 281; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 371; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 281; --Type: Cuming 808 (lecto); Vidal 294, both from Luzon. --Rubus elmeri Focke, Bibl. Bot. 72 (1910) 112; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 227; --Type: Merrill 4651, BS 4305 Mearns, Luzon. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, NEGROS. Forests and more open places like clearings at higher elevation, (900-)1500-2700m. Photos
  18. Rubus rosifolius Sm., Pl. Icon. Hact. Ined. 3 (1791) t. 60, as 'rosaefolius'; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 230; --Zandee & Kalkm., Blumea 27 (1981) 81; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 265; --Type: from Mauritius. --Rubus tagallus Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 2 (1827) 9; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 230; --Type: Chamisso s.n. (LE, holo; B, iso), Luzon. --Rubus comintanus Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 298; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 721 (L, neo), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Dec-1914. --Rubus apoensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1618; --Type: Elmer 10464 (L, holo; NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, 4000ft, May-1909. India (Assam), Cambodia, Vietnam, Japan?, Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea, Bougainville Is, New Britain, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Australia (Queensland, New South Wales). Introduced and naturalized in the Hawaiian Isls, in many parts of Africa (Cameroon, Fernando Poo, S Africa, Uganda, Tanzania, islands in the Indian Ocean (Mauritius, Rodrigues, Seychelles, possibly Madagascar) and parts of America (several isls of Lesser Antilles, S Brazil). LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Semenublen; Bangui), Mountain Province, Benguet, Ifugao, Aurora (Dingalan), Pampanga (Mt Pinatubo), Bataan (Lamao River; Mt Mariveles), Bulacan, Rizal (Montalban; Mt Irid), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon (Dolores), Albay (Mayon Volcano), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw), NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns; Lake Balinsasayao), MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad), Davao (Mt Apo). In open secondary places like clearings, forest edges, roadsides, landslides, grasslands, riverbanks, fallow gardens, also in shrubberies and rarely in the undergrowth of the lighter types of forest, from sea-level up to 2000m, rarely higher. Photos
  19. Rubus sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3777; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 339; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1992) 282; --Type: Elmer 14607 (A, BISH, BM, BO, K, L, MO, NY, P, U, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, ‘climbing upon trees and sprawling over their tops in wet earth of deep woods at 1500ft’, Oct-1915. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Only known from the type. 450m.

 Dubious and doubtful species

  1. Rubus mindanaensis Focke, Ann. Cons. Jard. Bot. Genève 20 (1917) 104. Considered by Focke to be related to Rubus niveus which, according to the material seen, is in the Philippines restricted to Luzon; --Type: Warburg 14483 (Kalkman 1992).
  2. Rubus zambalensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 451; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 231; --Kalkm., Blumea 29 (1984) 385; --Type: FB 8085 Curran & Merritt, Luzon: Zambales prov., The correct disposition of this name remains enigmatic. The type specimen obviously had only young flower buds and Elmer described them as placed in small glomerules and as subtended by a 4-lobed involucrum, which seems rather strange (Kalkman 1984).

Cultivated, not naturalized:

  1. Fragaria vesca L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 494; --Kalkm., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 11 (1993) 285. Temperate Eurasia. In the Philippines commercially grown in N LUZON: Benguet and Mountain Province. Not native to the Philippines.
  2. Malus domestica Borkh., Handb. Forstbot. 2 (1803) 1272. Originated in W Asia, now spread all over the world. In Malesia cultivated in E Java, Timor, Philippines, and probably some other islands. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Apple. Not native to the Philippines. Photos
  3. Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) C.K.Schneid., Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1 (1906) 761; --Cotoneaster angustifolius Franch., Pl. Delav. (1889) 221; --Type: from China. Originating from SW China (Yunnan), planted as an ornamental in Europe and North America. LUZON: Cordillera Highlands, Baguio-Bontoc Road, based on PNH 20368 Mendoza and Steenis 17923, collected from the same locality and date, apparently from cultivated plants, as well as PNH 39575 Steiner, probably collected in the same general locality. According to Kalkman, these specimens represent a glabrous form of P. angustifolia which is wild in Yunnan and is sometimes planted as an ornamental in Europe and N America.
  4. Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40 (1926) 564; --Ficus pyrifolia Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 226. --Pyrus serotina Rehder, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts l (1915) 231. Oriental pear.

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Kalkman, C. 1965. The Old World species of Prunus subg. Laurocerasus including those formerly referred to Pygeum. Blumea 13: 1-115

Kalkman, C. 1968. Potentilla, Duchesnea, and Fragaria in Malesia (Rosaceae). Blumea 16: 325-354


Kalkman, C. 1973. The Malesian species of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Blumea 21: 413-442

Kalkman, C. 1973. The genus Rosa in Malesia. Blumea 21: 281-291

Kalkman, C. 1984. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) in Malesia. 2. The subgenus Malachobatus. Blumea 29: 319-386

Kalkman, C. 1987. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) in Malesia. 3. The subgenus Micranthobatus.  Blumea 32: 323-341


Kalkman, C. 1992. Rosaceae. Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 11: 227-351

Zandee, M & C Kalkman. 1981. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) in Malesia. 1. Subgenera Chamaebatus and Idaeobatus. Blumea 27: 75-113

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Last updated 24 September 2017