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Polygalaceae

Including Xanthophyllaceae

Epirixanthes Blume

Photos
  1. Epirixanthes cylindrica Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 82; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. Myanmar, Sumatra, W Java, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Sorsogon, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos
  2. Epirixanthes papuana J.J.Sm., Fedde, Rep. 10 (1912) 286; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 491. N Sumatra, Enggano Is, W Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas (Talaud, Seram), New Guinea, Solomon Isls (San Cristóbal). LUZON.

Polygala L.

Photos
  1. Polygala arillata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 199; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 469. India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, S China, Hong Kong, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Philippines. PALAWAN. Forest understorey, 850m.
  2. Polygala chinensis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 704; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 278; EPFP 2 (1923) 383; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 478. --Polygala glomerata Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 426; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 383. NE India to S China, Thailand and Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia (Penang), Java, Borneo (SE part and Sarawak), Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores), New Guinea. LUZON: Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, GOLO, JOLO, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Low to medium elevation grasslands and waste places.
  3. Polygala japonica Houtt., Handleid. 10 (1779) 89; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 472. Sri Lanka, NE India, Myanmar, China, Japan, Korea, E Siberia, Ryukyu Isls, Taiwan, Indochina, Philippines, New Guinea, E Australia southwards to NE Victoria. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Open grassy slopes, 700-2400m.  
  4. Polygala longifolia Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 501; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 474. Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Thailand, Indochina, China, Ryukyu Isls, N Sumatra, N Borneo, Philippines, SW Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba), Moluccas (Kai Isls), New Guinea, N Australia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya), CULION, MINDANAO: Cotabato. Open grasslands to 1300m. Rare.
  5. Polygala malesiana Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 257; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 463. --Polygala cardiocarpa auct. non Kurz; --Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 1 (1922) 139, pro parte; --Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. Peninsular Malaysia, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba, Flores), Philippines, SE Sulawesi (Tukangbesi Isls), Moluccas (Buru, Seram, Kai and Aru Isls), W New Guinea (Sorong and Bird’s Head Peninsula). NEGROS: Negros Oriental (near Dumaguete), BOHOL. Low elevation. Photos
  6. Polygala paniculata L., Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1154; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 475. Native of the neotropics, from Brazil to Mexico. A recent introduction to the Philippines. NEGROS (Cuernos de Negros), LEYTE (Tongonon), MINDANAO (Mt Kitanglad & Mt Apo). Apparently naturalized. Waste places and fields, often abundant on various soil types, usually at medium elevation. Photos
  7. Polygala persicariaefolia DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 236; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 473. --Polygala persicariaefolia var. wallichiana Chodat, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 312 (1893) 331; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. --Polygala septemnervia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 202. Africa (Angola via South Africa to Ethiopia), India, Upper Myanmar, Thailand, S China (Yunnan), Sumatra (N half), E Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Timor, Alor), Philippines, throughout New Guinea, Australia (N Queensland). LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cavite. Open grassy slopes, 500-1800m.
  8. Polygala polifolia C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1830) 101; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 476. Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indochina, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, ?Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Seram, Ambon), New Guinea, N Australia, Micronesia (Ponape). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Tarlac, Rizal, MINDORO, SEMIRARA, MINDANAO. Lowland and medium elevation grasslands. Photos
  9. Polygala tatarinowii Regel, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 34 (1861) 523; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 462. --Polygala triphylla auct. non Buch.-Ham., non Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, non Burm.f.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 384. Iran to N China, Korea, E Liberia, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, New Guinea (Sepik). LUZON, MINDANAO.
  10. Polygala triflora L., Sp. Pl. 3 (1803) 877; --Adema, Blumea 14 (1966) 273, pro parte; Blumea 17 (1969) 269; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 481. --Polygala elongata auct. non J.G.Klein ex Willd.; --Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 20; EPFP 2 (1923) 383. Sri Lanka, continental SE Asia, N Sumatra, N Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ternate), New Guinea. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Bukidnon. Low elevation grasslands, rare.
  11. Polygala venenosa Juss. ex Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 494; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 468. Peninsular Thailand (Pattani), Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. Photos

Salomonia Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 20 September 2017

Photos
  1. Salomonia cantoniensis Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 14; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385. E India, Nepal, Bangladesh, SW China (Yunnan), Myanmar, Thailand, S Vietnam, Sumatra, Nias, Riouw Archipelago, Banka, Peninsular Malaysia, Langkawi Isls, Java, Madura, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Timor), Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas (Seram, Ambon, Tinambar Isls, Misool). Not recorded from New Guinea. Records from Japan and Australia are erroneous. LUZON: Mountain Province, PANAY, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Medium elevation thickets and open slopes. Photos
  2. Salomonia ciliata (L.) DC., Prodr. 1 (1824) 334; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 487; --Polygala ciliata L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 701. Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, S & E India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, China, Japan, S Korea, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Marianas (Guam), Carolines (Yap), Sumatra, Banka, Billiton, W Java, Madura, Borneo (N Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah), Karimata Is, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Sula & Tanimbar Isls), New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal. Low and medium elevation grasslands. 

Securidaca L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Securidaca atroviolacea Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1671; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Disturbed lowland forests on ultramafic soil. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk., Flora 252 (1842) Beibl. 2, 32. Photos
  3. Securidaca philippinensis Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 233; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 385; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 484. Borneo (Sarawak), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ambon, Buru). LUZON: Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, BOHOL, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos

Xanthophyllum Roxb.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 April 2014

Photos
  1. Xanthophyllum bracteatum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 258; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 105; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519. --Xanthophyllum pseudostipulaceum Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 316; EPFP 2 (1923) 387; --Type: BS 21135 Escritor (L, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela prov., Palanan Bay, Jun-1913. --Xanthophyllum angustigemma Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 104; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 519; --Type: FB 21201 (P, holo), Camarines. --Xanthophyllum griffithii auct. non Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn.; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 94; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. LUZON: Isabela (Palanan), Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, SAMAR. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  2. Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 257.
  3. Xanthophyllum flavescens Roxb., Pl. Coromandel. 3 (1820) 82; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 500; --Type: Roxburgh 363 (BM). --Xanthophyllum excelsum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1858) 129; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386. --Xanthophyllum affine Korth. ex Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1864) 271; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386, pro parte, sub Xanthophyllum excelsum; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 503. --Xanthophyllum philippinense Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 261; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 88; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 510; --Type: Vidal (K). --Xanthophyllum floriferum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1674; --Type: Elmer 12871 (L, holo; BISH, MO, NY, U, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak), in rich humus-covered soil of dense forests at 750ft (229m) on the trail to Napsan, Mar-1911. --Xanthophyllum multiramosum Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1676; --Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; --Type: Elmer 8701 (L, holo; MO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, along a creek in pine forest, Mar-1907. --Xanthophyllum glandulosum Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 35 (1905) 34; --Type: Merrill 2335 (SING, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Tanay, May-1903. --Xanthophyllum loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 29; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Type: Loher 14978 (HUH), Luzon: Rizal prov., Balacbac, Jun-1912. Throughout continental SE Asia, Sumatra, Simalur, Banka, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN, MASBATE, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  4. Xanthophyllum palawanense Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1673; --Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 101; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 516. --Xanthophyllum cordatum auct. non Korth.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 386; --Type: Elmer 12931 (syn) & Elmer 13170 (syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (Mt. Pulgar), Apr & May-1911. LUZON: Isabela (Palanan), PALAWAN, TAWI-TAWI, JOLO. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos
  5. Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr., Syn. Pl. (1840) 1277; --Meijden, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 514; --Jakkia vitellina Blume, Cat. 17 (1823) 64; --Type from Java. --Xanthophyllum robustum Chodat, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4 (1896) 262; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 387; --Type: Vidal 40 (L, lecto). --Xanthophyllum impressum Meijden, Leiden Bot. Ser. 7 (1982) 90; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 10 (1988) 513. Sumatra, Siberut, Simalur, Riouw, Peninsular Malaysia (incl. Penang), Java, Borneo, Philippines. BABUYAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary forests.

Acknowledgements

Kenneth S. Kennedy and Leslee S. Kennedy kindly contributed some of the photos on this webpage.


Literature

Adema, F. 1966. A review of the herbaceous species of Polygala in Malesia (Polygonaceae). Blumea 14: 253-276

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Meijden, R van der. 1982. Systematics and evolution of Xanthophyllum: (Polygalaceae). Leiden Botanical Series 7: 3-159


Meijden, R van der. 1988. Polygalaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1,
10: 455-539; pp. 493-539 treats Xanthophyllum (Xanthophyllaceae)

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 15 November 2017