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Phyllanthaceae

Actephila Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 27 August 2017

Photos
  1. Actephila alanbakeri Welzen & Ent in Van der Ent et al., Botanical Studies 57 (2016) 2; --Type: from Borneo. Borneo, Philippines. MINDORO, NEGROS (Danjugan Isl.). Photos
  2. Actephila excelsa (Dalz.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 78; --Type: from India. --Actephila javanica Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 12 (1859) 359; --Actephila excelsa var. javanica (Miq.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 81 (1822) 192; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 390; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 52; --Type: from Java. --Actephila dispersa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 276; --Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1273; --Pimeleodendron dispersum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 308; --Pax in Engl. Pflanzenreich 52 (1912) 56; --Type: Elmer 7245 (PNH, holo, lost; K, L, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Palo, Jan-1905. --Actephila gitingensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 903; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; --Type: Elmer 12141 (PNH, holo, lost; A, E, G, GH, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, US, iso), Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang), Mt Gitinggiting, “in stony gravelly soil along the Pauala riverbed at 1250ft, Apr-1910. --Actephila magnifolia Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 904; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 390; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 3; --Type: Elmer 12303 (PNH, holo, lost; A, E, G, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, US), Sibuyan: Magallanes (=Magdiwang), Mt Giting-giting, “compact fertile soil of a forested incline at 1000ft”, Apr-1910. --Actephila gigantifolia Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1897) 625; --Merr., Philip. Bur. Forestry Bull. 1 (1903) 29; --Type: from Indonesia.  Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and off-shore islands, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines, PALAWAN, BANCALAN, SIBUYAN, LEYTE, JOLO, MINDANAO, SIARGAO, DINAGAT. Low and medium elevation primary forests. Photos

Antidesma L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017

Photos
  1. Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng., Syst. 1 (1825) 826; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 287; EPFP 2 (1923) 412; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 74; --Stilago bunius L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 122; --Antidesma stilago Poir., Encycl. suppl. 1 (1811) 403, pro parte, nom. illeg. --Antidesma ciliatum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 234; --Type: Cuming 1446 (PRC, holo; CGE, E, FHO, G, K, L, P, iso), Luzon: Batangas prov. --Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. cordifolium (C.Presl) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 262; --Antidesma cordifolium C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 235; --Type: Cuming 474 (PRC, holo; CGE, E, G, FHO, K, L 2 sheets, MEL, P, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Calauang. --Antidesma crassifolium (Elmer) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 383; --Sapium crassifolium Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 485; --Type: Elmer 10312 (US, lecto; A, BM, E, G, K, L, MO, NY, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, open, dry grassy ridges at 1000ft, Jun-1908. Photos
  2. Antidesma catanduanense Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 549; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 4; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 81; --Type: BS 30515 Ramos (A, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Catanduanes: Mt Mariguidon. Nov/Dec-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Along streams in forests.
  3. Antidesma curranii Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 466; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 97; --Type: FB 5087 Curran (US, lecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. In (dry) dipterocarp forest; in primary or secondary vegetation; in shady or half-shady habitats. On clay soil, also reported from ultrabasic soil. 50-700m.
  4. Antidesma digitaliforme Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. 3, 15 (1851) 191; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 413; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 103; --Type: Callery 42 (P, lecto; A, G, isolecto), Luzon, apud Igolotas, in sylvis montium, prope Manillam. --Antidesma lucidum Merr., PJS 1 suppl. (1906) 78; --Type: Whitford 1135 (US, lecto; G, K, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao Forest Reserve. --Antidesma luzonicum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 464; EPFP 2 (1923) 415; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; --Type: Ramos (Phil. Pl.) 1555 (L, lecto; A, BO, G, NY, SING, isolecto), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Mt Isarog. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, BUCAS GRANDE. Understorey of dipterocarp and elfin/montane forest; in primary or secondary vegetation; sometimes on exposed ridges. On clay-loam or loose rocky soil. 10-1600m.
  5. Antidesma edule Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 26; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 418, pro syn. A. spicatum Blanco; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 106; --Type: FB 167 Barnes (US, lecto; BM, K, NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River. Endemic to the Philippines.
  6. Antidesma excavatum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 1 (1864) 218; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 112; --Type: from Sulawesi. --Antidesma sarcocarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 288; Euph. New Guinea (1980) 218; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; --LectoType: from Papua New Guinea. ?BS 39026 Ramos & Edaño.
  7. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn., Fruct. 1 (1788) 189; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 287; EPFP 2 (1923) 414; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5. --Antidesma ghaesembilla var. vestitum (C.Presl) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 251; --Antidesma vestitum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 232; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 414; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Type: Cuming 986 (PRC, holo; CGE, E, G, K, L, MEL, NY, TCD, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan prov. --Antidesma spicatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 794 (“spicata”); --Type: Blanco?, Llanos?, Philippines. --?Cansjera grossularioides Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73 (“Cansiera”); Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 53; --Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 463; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 218; --Type: Blanco? Llanos?, Philippines. --?Cansjera rheedii Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73 (“Cansiera rheedi”); Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 52 (“Cansiera rhedi”); Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 462, nom. illeg., auct. non Gmel.; --Type: Blanco? Llanos?, Philippines. India, Nicobar Isls, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, S China (Guangdong), Hainan, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sabah), Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, northern Australia. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium elevation, a common characteristic tree of open cogonales (grasslands) at low and medium elevation. In pyrogenous grassland, scrubby ‘parang’ vegetation, vine thickets, early stage re-growths associated with Macaranga and other fast-growing weed-tree pioneers, along roadsides, on various soil types including limestone and ultramafics-derived, 0-1250m. Photos 
  8. Antidesma japonicum Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3) (1846) 212, repr. as Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 2 (1846) 88; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 134; --Type: Siebold & Zuccarini s.n. (L, herb. No. 903154-234, lecto; L, ?LE, isolecto), Japan. --Antidesma acuminatissimum Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 159; --Type: BS 45189 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; B, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran.
  9. Antidesma leucopodum Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. (1861) 465; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 212; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 145; --Type: from Sumatra (lecto). --Antidesma clementis auct. non Merr. (1917); --Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 465; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Type: M.S. Clemens 884 (G, lecto), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley. Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. In lowland to lower montane (mixed) dipterocarp forest up to 50m tall; in mossy forest; in riverine forest; usually in damp understorey, associated with Castanopsis, Dipterocarpus, Durio, Shorea; also along roadsides; in primary or secondary vegetation. On loam and clay over sandstone and shale, alluvial soil and limestone rocks. Up to 2200 m.
  10. Antidesma macgregorii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 207; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 415; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 145; --Type: BS 10280 McGregor (US, lecto; K, iso), Polillo. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Tayabas, Camarines, POLILLO, CATANDUANES, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR. The specimen Curran 3477(A) from Masamba, southern Sulawesi, is the only collection of Antidesma macgregorii from outside the Philippines. It matches the Philippine specimens but bears only very young fruits and is therefore here regarded as doubtful. In dipterocarp forest, along forest edges, primary or disturbed vegetation. On brown clay and ultrabasic soil. 50–900 m.
  11. Antidesma microcarpum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 487; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 415; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 150; --Type: Elmer 9668 (E, lecto; G, isolecto), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Cuernos Mtns, Dumaguete. --Antidesma santosii Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 550; EPFP 2 (1923) 417; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; --Type: FB 26300 Santos (US, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mount Banahaw. --Antidesma maesoides Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 164; --Type: Ramos 15251 (A, lecto), Leyte: Leyte prov., Dagami. --Antidesma fru[c]tiferum Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3731; nom. inval., no Latin descr.; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Voucher: Elmer 14508 (BM, BO, G, GH, K, L, NY, U, US), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, PANAY, NEGROS, BOHOL, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Mainly in secondary forest. 60–1050 m. Photos
  12. Antidesma montanum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 1124; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add.  Ser. 4 (1975) 213; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 6; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 154; --Type: from Java (lecto). Photos
  13. Antidesma pleuricum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Sér. 3, 15 (1851) 213; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 417; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 196; --Type: Callery 38 (P “38bis”, lecto), Calawanio. --Antidesma obliquicarpum Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2633; --Type: Elmer 13277 (NY, lecto; A, E, G, GH, K, L, P, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. --?Antidesma tenuifolium Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 137; --Type: Curran 10736 (K, lecto; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Camarines. Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, Albay, ALABAT, MINDORO, BURIAS, TICAO, CATANDUANES, SAMAR, SIARGAO, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, MINDANAO. In forests, often in damp, dense habitats or near streams, on deep, fertile red soil, brown loam, limestone, 10–600 m. Photos 
  14. Antidesma puncticulatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 468; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 198; --Type: from Sumatra. --Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. thwaitesianum (Müll.Arg.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Pl. Ceylon (1885) 81; --Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. b Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1861) 289, nom. inval.; --Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 263; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 217; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; --Type: from Sri Lanka (lecto). Nicobar and Andaman Isls, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, north-eastern Borneo (East Kalimantan, Sabah), SW Philippines. PALAWAN, BANCALAN, BALABAC. In evergreen primary, sometimes disturbed forest, in swamp forest, along river banks, at the inner edge of the mangrove, in secondary vegetation with Dillenia and Melastoma. On brown to black soil, sandy loam or peat, over sandstone. Up to 500 m. 
  15. Antidesma riparium Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 282; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 207.
  16. Antidesma stipulare Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1827) 1125; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 216; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 215; --Type: from Nusa Kambangan (lecto). --Antidesma cordatostipulaceum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 413; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Type: McGregor 311 (K, lecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River. --Antidesma cordatostipulaceum Merr. var. lancifolium Merr., Enum. Philip. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 413 (“cordato- stipulaceum”); --Type: BS 40732 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, P, US, iso), Mindoro. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ambon, Buru, Seram, Sula Isls). MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN?, SULU ARCHIPELAGO, MINDANAO. In primary and secondary vegetation, in lowland to hill dipterocarp forest up to 40 m tall, in mossy upper montane forest, in riverine and swamp forest, in Agathis forest, usually in shady understorey. On clay, loam, peat and sandy soil, often acidic, sometimes on ultrabasic soil, over limestone, basalt, sandstone and shale. Up to 1800 m. 
  17. Antidesma subcordatum Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 418; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 218; --Type: BS 1114 Ramos (NY, lecto; BO, GH, K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso. --Antidesma fusicarpum Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3081; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 414; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Type: Elmer 18083 (GH, lecto; BM, BO, G, K, L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Los Baños (Mt Maquiling). --Antidesma subcordatum Merr. var. glabrescens Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 157; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 418; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; --Type: Merrill 2860 (NY, lecto; K, US, iso), Luzon: Pangasinan prov.. Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores, Timor). LUZON: Laguna, CORRIGIDOR, CORON, PALAWAN, MASBATE. The disjunction might indicate an adaptation to drier habitats than its presumed sister taxon Antidesma ghaesembilla, or it might simply be a collecting artifact. Forested ravines. 20–300m. 
  18. Antidesma tomentosum Blume, Bijdr. (1827) 1126; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 218; --Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 224. --Antidesma cumingii Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 249; --Type: Cuming 1300 (G-BOISS, holo; BM, G, G-DC microfiche, CGE, FHO, K, iso), Luzon: Albay prov. --Antidesma membranifolium Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 313 (“membranaefolium”); --Type: Elmer 9088 (L, lecto; A, E, G, K, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. --Antidesma subolivaceum Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1272; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 418; --Airy Shaw,  Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; --Type: Elmer 12883 (NY, lecto; A, BM, BO, E, G, K, L, P, US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar [=Thumb Peak]. --Antidesma samarense Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 469; --EPFP 2 (1923) 417; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 7; --Type: Ramos (Phil. Pl.) 1665 (US, lecto; BM, BO, G, GH, L, NY, P, SING, iso), Samar. --Antidesma urdanetense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2635; --Type: Elmer 13971 (A, lecto; BM, BO, E, G, K, L, NY, P, U, US, iso), Mindanao, Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. --Antidesma ilocanum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 549; EPFP 2 (1923) 414; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Type: BS 32998 Ramos (A, lecto; BM, K, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., between Bangui and Claveria. --Antidesma impressinerve Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 548; EPFP 2 (1923) 414; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 5; --Type: BS 31409 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; K, US, iso), Panay: Capiz prov., Jamindan. Antidesma tomentosum is a very variable species. Photos       

Aporosa Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2017

Photos
  1. Aporosa banahaensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 410; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 214; --Baccaurea banahaensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1475; --Type: Elmer 9106 (BM, BO, L, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. --Aporosa similis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 472; --Type: FB 7279 Everett (P, iso), Negros. --Aporosa agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2636; --Type: Elmer 13415 (A, BM, BO, L, P, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta. ?North Borneo, Philippines. Primary or secondary forest or old logging areas, in lower storey. On (brown) clay, 35–380m. Flowering Feb-Apr; fruiting Apr-Sep and Nov. The fruit is recorded odorless and edible.
  2. Aporosa basilanensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 471; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.  Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 324; --Type: BS 16168 Reillo (K, holo; BM, P, iso; photo A), Basilan. Borneo, SW Philippines. BASILAN. Primary mixed dipterocarp forest and in logging areas; on hill sides, hill tops, flat land, and along river banks. On basalt or clayish yellow soil, 30–1450 m. Flowering Mar-May; fruiting Feb-Dec.
  3. Aporosa benthamiana Hook.f, Icon. Pl. 16 (1887) t. 1583; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 8; --Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya 1 (1940) 237; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 59; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 33; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 276; --Type: from Peninsular Malaysia (Malacca; lecto). --Aporosa lunata (Miq.) Kurz var. stipulosa (Merr.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 410, nom. illeg.; --Aporosa stipulosa  Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 547. --Aporosa lunata (Miq.) Kurz var. philippinensis Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv (1922) 82; --Type: MS Clemens 968, Mindanao. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Agusan del Norte. Lowland primary and seconadry forests, ascending to 800m. Flowering May-Nov; fruiting Mar-Dec. Photos
  4. Aporosa frutescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 514; --Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV.147.xv  (1922) 91; --Corner, Wayside Trees Malaya 1 (1940) 237; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964)  457; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 216 (excl. A. banahaensis); --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.  Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 59, 60; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit.  Ser. 4 (1975) 216; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 255, 37 (1982) 7; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 220; --Schot & Welzen in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl.  Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 88; --Type: from Java (lecto). --Aporosa fruticosa (Blume) Muell.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 475; --Leiocarpus fruticosus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 582; --Type: from Java (lecto). S Myanmar (Tenasserim), Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas.
  5. Aporosa leytensis Merr., PJS 9c (1914) 368; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph.  Philip. (1983) 9; --Schot, Blumea 40 (1995) 452; Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 301; --Type: Wenzel 614 (A, holo; BM, L, iso). --Aporosa alvarezii Merr., PJS 9c (1914) Bot. 470; EPFP 2 (1923) 301; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph.  Philip. (1983) 8; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 324; --Type: FB 21245 Alvarez (K, iso). Philippines, Sulawesi. BILIRAN, LEYTE. Forests, 500-600m. Photos
  6. Aporosa octandra (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Vickery, Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 3 (1982) 193; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 259.
  7. Aporosa sphaeridiophora Merr., PJS suppl. 1 (1906) 76, as 'sphaeridophora'; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 348; --Type: FB 146 Barnes (BO, K, isolecto). --Aporosa acuminatissima Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 546; EPFP 2 (1923) 409; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. (1983) 9; --Type: FB 26185 Amarillas (A, holo; K, P, iso). Sumatra, Java, Philippines, Moluccas. Bornean materials so-named by Merrill (1929) represent A. falcifera Hook. f. and A. subcaudata Merr. var. sphaeridiophora.
  8. Aporosa symplocifolia Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 77, as 'symplocosifolia'; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 9; --Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 268. --Aporosa elliptifolia Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 472; EPFP 2 (1923) 410; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph.  Philip. (1983) 9; --Type: Merrill 9609 (A, GH, L, NY, SING, US, iso), Palawan: Silanga, May-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Albay, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation primary forests, common.

Baccaurea Lour.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Baccaurea bakeri Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 412. Endemic to the Philippines.
  2. Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 457; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; --Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 302; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philip. (1983) 9; --Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 119; --Hedycarpus lanceolatus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1, 2 (1859) 359; --Type: from Java. --Baccaurea glabriflora Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV. 147.xv (1922) 59; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; --Type: Merrill 853 (US, holo; K, iso), Palawan: San Antonio Bay, Feb-1903. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, Kalimantan), Philippines. PALAWAN, JOLO (according to Merrill (1923) probably cultivated on account of edible fruits). Lowland forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  3. Baccaurea odoratissima Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1276; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; --Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 307; --Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 141; --Type: Elmer 13160 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; GH, K, MO,  NY US, isolecto; Elmer 12864 (L, MO, NY, syn), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb  Peak), forests, c. 225m. Borneo (Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak, Kalimantan), Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Pulgar. Lowland forests.
  4. Baccaurea philippinensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 275; EPFP 2 (1923) 411; --Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 303; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph.  Philip. (1983) 9; --Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 157; --Everettiodendron philippinense Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 279; --Type: Everett 7282 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Negros: Himugaan River, 1907. Philippines, Moluccas (Halmaheira). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Pangasinan, Zambales, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines Sur, CALAMIANES, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao del Sur, DINAGAT. Primary and secondary lowland forests, 80-450m. Flowering Apr-Aug; fruiting Jan-Jun; Aug, Oct, Dec.
  5. Baccaurea tetrandra (Baill.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 465; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 411; --Fernando, Kalikasan, Philip. J. Biol. 8 (1979) 307; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.  Euphorb. Philip. (1983) 10; --Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 185; --Type: Cuming 982 (L, lecto; NY, P, US, isolecto), Philippines. --Baccaurea terminalifolia Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1277; --Type: Elmer 13089 (DS, lecto; GH, K, L, MO, NA, NY 2 sheets, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak). Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Halmahera). LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao, Surigao. Primary and secondary lowland and medium elevation forests, also swamp forests. Photos

Bischofia Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 December 2016

Photos
  1. Bischofia javanica Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1168; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 288; EPFP 2 (1923) 418; --Type: from Java. Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, China, Cook Isls., Fiji, India, Japan, Java, Laos, Lesser Sunda Isls, Malay Peninsula, Moluccas, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Solomon Isls., Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Philippines. Throughout the Philippines. Pioneer species up to 1500(-2350)m. Photos

Breynia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

[Also considered as part of a broader delimited Phyllanthus]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2017

Photos
  1. Breynia androgyna (L.) Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr., Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19 (2012) 120; --Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr., Bull. Bur. For. Philip. Is. 1 (1903) 30; EPFP 2 (1923) 405; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph., Philip. Is. (1883) 44; --Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 340; --Clutia androgyna L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 128. --Sauropus scandens C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 72; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 405; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph., Philip. Is. (1983) 44. India, Sri Lanka, ?Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Cocos Is, Christmas Is (Indian Ocean), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea (Irian Jaya). LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Camarines, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR. Lowland thickets, forests and forested ravines. Photos
  2. Breynia cernua (Poir.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 439; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 286; EPFP 2 (1923) 404; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; --Phyllanthus cernuus Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 5 (1804) 298. Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea and Australia. BATAN and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Common in thickets at low and medium elevation ascending to 1500m. Photos
  3. Breynia lanceolata (Hook.f.) Welzen & Pruesapan, Blumea 59 (2014) 92; --Sauropus lanceolatus Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 333; --Type: from India. --Sauropus rhamnoides Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 596; --Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 367; --Type: from Indonesia. India, Myanmar, SE and Peninsular Thailand, Cambodia, S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Flores). 
  4. Breynia macrantha (Hassk.) Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr., Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19 (2012) 121; --Sauropus macranthus Hassk., Retzia 1(1855) 166; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph., Philip. Is. (1983) 44; --Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 358. --Sauropus robinsonii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 407; EPFP 2 (1923) 405; --Type: Elmer 6441 (PNH, holo, lost; BM, K 2 sheets, L, P, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Kias [=Baguio]. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON, MINDORO, CALAMIANES, PALAWAN, MINDANAO.
  5. Breynia racemosa (Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 441; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 62; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 10; --Melanthesa racemosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 592. --Breynia acuminata (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 442; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 404; --Melanthesa acuminata Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 74. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON (Cagayan to Laguna, common), MINDORO, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1200m. Photos
  6. Breynia villosa (Blanco) Welzen & Pruesapan, Blumea 59 (2014) 93; --Sauropus villosus (Blanco) Merr., Contrib. Arn. Arb. 8 (1934) 86; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum.  Euph., Philip. Is. (1883) 44; --Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 380; --Kirganelia villosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 712; ed. 2 (1845) 493; ed. 3 (1879) 116, t. 399; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 217; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 931 (L, neo; A, BM, K, NSW, NY, P,  US, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal prov. --Glochidion llanosii Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 68; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400. SE and Peninsular Thailand, Vietnam (Annam), Sumatra, N Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, PANAY, BOHOL, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao, Davao Oriental). Open forests at low elevation. Fl. fr. Sep-Jun. Photos
  7. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew (1932) 65; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1971) 227; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; --Rhamnus vitis-idaea Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 61; --Breynia rhamnoides Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 440; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 286; EPFP 2 (1923) 404, nom. superfl. India to China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Sulawesi, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea and Australia. BATAN and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Common in thickets at low and medium elevation ascending to 1500m.

Bridelia Willd.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2017

Photos
  1. Bridelia glauca Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 597; --Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 74; --Merr.,  EPFP 2 (1923) 423; --Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964)  475; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 64; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 43; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 273; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 10; Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983) 11; --S.Dressler, Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 606; Blumea 41 (1996) 311; --Type: from Java (lecto). --Cleistanthus myrianthoides C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 325; --Type: FB 10679 Curran (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Caramoan, San Roque. --Bridelia laurifolia Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2637; --Bridelia glauca forma laurifolia (Elmer) Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 75; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 423; --Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; --Type: Wenzel 411 (BM, lecto; GH, isolecto), Leyte: Dagami, 8-Sep-1913; Note by P.B.Pelser (2-Sep-2017: the lectotypification of Bridelia glauca forma laurifolia by Dressler (1996; FB 18195 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke) is superfluous. --Bridelia glauca var. acuminatissima (Merr.) S.Dressler, Blumea 41 (1996) 314; --Bridelia acuminatissima Merr.,  PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 473; EPFP 2 (1923) 422; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; --Type: Philip. Pl. 1551 Ramos (A, BM, L, NY, SING, iso), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Mt  Isarog, along streams in forests, 25-Nov-1913. India, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanmar,Thailand, Laos, Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines (not found on Palawan), Sulawesi, Moluccas (Talaud Is, Morotai, Halmahera, Obi, Bacan, Taliaboe Is, Ambon, Seram), New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain). In (sometimes disturbed) primary and secondary forests, often near rivers, reported on well-drained volcanic as well as from sandy, loamy, or clayey soil; over sandstone, limestone, grey schists, or granite; scattered to common, up to 1500m. Photos
  2. Bridelia insulana Hance, J. Bot. 15 (1877) 337; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 63; --S.Dressler, Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 605, 606; Blumea 41 (1996) 315; --Type: from Vietnam. --Bridelia penangiana Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 272; --Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 75; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 229; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 44; Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 602; Muelleria 4 (1980) 223; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 273; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 11; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 75; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; --Type: Malaysia. --Bridelia minutiflora Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 273; --Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 76; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 423; Holthuis & HJ Lam, Blumea 5 (1942) 200; --Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; --Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 475; --Type: from Myanmar. --Bridelia ovata Merr., Philip. Bur. For. Bull. 1 (1903) 30, nom. illeg., auct. non Decne. --Bridelia platyphylla Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 384; --Type: FB 11167 Aguilar (US, type fragment), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Angat. Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Nicobar Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Palau Isls, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Flores, Sumbawa), Moluccas (Morotai), New Guinea, Bougainville, Solomon Isls, Sta Cruz Group, New Hebrides (Espirito Santo), Reef Is, Malalaika, Guadalcanal/San Cristobal, Choiseul, New Georgia Group, NE Australia (Queensland). LUZON: Cagayan, Tayabas, Laguna, Batangas, Camarines, PALAWAN, TABLAS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Cotabato, SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Primary and secondary rainforests, often along rivers, but also on dry land, sandy to loamy or clayey soil, or on limestone, 0-1500m. Photos
  3. Bridelia pustulata Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1887) 271; --Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 74; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 67; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 74; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 74; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 64; Kew  Bull. 36 (1981) 274; --S.Dressler, Blumea 41 (1996) 320; --Type: from Malacca. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. Primary forests, 0-350m. LUZON: Cagayan, Laguna, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao.
  4. Bridelia stipularis (L.) Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 597; --Fern.-Villar in Blanco, Fl. Filipp., ed. 3, Nov. App. 4  (1880) 186; --Vidal, Sinopsis Atlas (1883) 38; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 141; Rev.  Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 233; --Merr., PJS 1, Suppl. (1906) 78; Fl. Manila (1912) 284; Sp. Blancoanae  (1918) 220; EPFP 2 (1923) 424; --FC Gates, PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 426; --Corner, Wayside Trees  Malaya, ed. 3, 1 (1988) 279; --Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 475; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 230; Kew Bull., Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 65; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 274; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 11; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 11; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 74; --S.Dressler, Blumea 41 (1996) 2; --Clutia stipularis L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 127; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 818; ed. 2. (1845) 564, ed. 3, 3 (1879) 229 (as Clutya); --Clutia stipularis L., Mant. Pl. (1776) 127. --Bridelia stipularis ssp. philippinensis Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (19i5) 57; --Type: FB 1884 Ahern's collector (US, lecto; BO, K, NY, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso. Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, SE Asia mainland, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, N Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Sumba, Flores, Alor, Timor). LUZON: Cagayan to Laguna and Quezon, common; MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO, PANAY, CEBU, BOHOL. Apparently unknown from MINDANAO. Primary and secondary forests, often near wet places (rivers, swamps, seashore, mangrove); mostly reported from sandy soil, but also from limestone or loamy soil above igneous rocks. 0 to 400(–1100)m. Photos
  5. Bridelia tomentosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 597; --Fern.-Villar in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, Nov. App. 4 (1880) 186; --Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 58; --Corner, Wayside Trees  Malaya, ed. 1 (1940) 243, ed. 2, 1 (1951) 243; ed. 3, 1 (1988) 280; --Airy Shaw,  Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 231; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 65; Kew Bull. 31 (1976) 382; --Hsieh, Fl.  Taiwan 3 (1977) 452; ed. 2, 3 (1993) 430; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 45; Kew Bull.  35 (1980) 602; Muelleria 4 (1980) 223; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 274; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 11; Alphab.  Enum. Euphorb. Philip. Isl. (1983) 11; --S.Dressler, Kew Bull. 51 (1996) 607; Blumea 41 (1996) 297; --Type: from Java (lecto). --Bridelia monoica Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 142, vix Clutia monoica Lour. (sec. Corner, 1939: 291 f.); EPFP 2 (1923) 423; --Salvosa, Lex. Philip. Trees (1963) 89; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 475; --Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 228, 231; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2  (1973) 74, in clavi.

Cleistanthus Hook.f. ex Planch.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2017

Photos
  1. Cleistanthus angustifolius Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 386; EPFP 2 (1923) 419; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 114. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, BUCAS GRANDE. On forested ridges and slopes at low elevation.
  2. Cleistanthus brideliifolius C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 191; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 419; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 115. Java, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls.
  3. Cleistanthus decurrens Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 278; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 117. --Cleistanthus decipiens C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 195; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14. --Cleistanthus ovatus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 194; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 421; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO, PANAY, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland primary forests.
  4. Cleistanthus erycibifolius Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1967) 389; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 120. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. NEGROS.
  5. Cleistanthus everettii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 194; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 121; --Type: FB 7274 Everett. --Cleistanthus samarensis Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 475; EPFP 2 (1923) 422; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; --Type: Merrill Philip. Pl. 1685. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, NEGROS, BILIRAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan. Lowland primary forests.
  6. Cleistanthus glaber Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 21 (1968) 366; Euph. Born. (1975) 80; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 70; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 124. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO.
  7. Cleistanthus isabellinus Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 911; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 125;  --Type: Elmer 12268. Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. SIBUYAN. Lowland forests.
  8. Cleistanthus megacarpus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 323; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 126. Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Philippines. MINDORO, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao. Lowland primary forests.
  9. Cleistanthus oblongifolius (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2.2) (1866) 506; --Clutia oblongifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 730. --Cleistanthus myrianthus (Hassk.) Kurz, Prelim. Rep. Forest Pegu, App. A (1875); For. Fl. Brit. Myanmar (1877) 370; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 421;--Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 129; --Nanopetalum myrianthum Hassk., Verslagen Meded. Afd. Natuurk. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 4 (1855) 141. --Cleistanthus mindanaensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1908) Bot. 324; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; --Type: FB 9474 Whitford & Hutchinson. --Cleistanthus misamisensis C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 325; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; --Type: FB 15463 Pray. --Cleistanthus apiculatus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) 189; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 419; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14; --Type: RS Williams 2356. Andaman Isls, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls., Australia. LUZON: Isabella, MINDORO, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis Occidental. Lowland forests, sometimes in thickets. Photos
  10. Cleistanthus pedicellatus Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 281; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 80; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 132. --Cleistanthus integer C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 196; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 420; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14. --Cleistanthus quadrifidus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 197; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15. China, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Rizal, Quezon, Camarines, SIBUYAN, CEBU, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Surigao. Lowland primary forests.
  11. Cleistanthus pilosus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 326; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 421; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 135. Endemic to the Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland primary forests.
  12. Cleistanthus robinsonii Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 909; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 422; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 15; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 136; --Type: Elmer 12540. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN, PALAWAN.
  13. Cleistanthus rufescens Jabl., in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 30; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 137. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines.
  14. Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 504; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 82; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 139; --Leiopyxis sumatrana Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 446. --Cleistanthus vidalii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) 193; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 422; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16. --Cleistanthus orgyalis (Blanco) Merr., Publ. Bur. Sci. Gov. Lab. 27 (1905) 75 (1905); --Gluta orgyalis Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 45, nom. rej.; --Cleistanthus blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21 (1884) 315, nom. illeg. --Cleistanthus blancoi S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 234 (1886), nom. illeg. --Cleistanthus oligophlebius Merr., PJS c 13 (1918) 80. --Cleistanthus saichikii Merr., PJS 23 (1923) 248. Hainan, Indochina, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. LUZON: Bataan, PALAWAN. Lowland forests.
  15. Cleistanthus venosus C.B.Rob., PJS 3 (1908) 192; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 422; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 141. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Lowland forests up to 300m.
  16. Cleistanthus vestitus Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenreich 65 (1915) 32; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 16; --Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 83; --S.Dressler, Blumea 44 (1999) 143. --Cleistanthus barrosii Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 400; EPFP 2 (1923) 419; --Airy Shaw,  Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 14. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Isabela. Lowland primary forests.

Flueggea Benth. & Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 September 2017

Photos
  1. Flueggea flexuosa Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 76; --Securinega flexuosa (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 450; --Merr., EPFP 2  (1923) 390. Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, NEGROS, CEBU, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Misamis, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan, Surigao. Low elevation primary forests. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Flueggea gracilis (Merr.) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 61 (2006) 44; --Baccaurea gracilis Merr., PJS 1, Suppl. 3 (1906) 203. PALAWAN. In forests near seashore.
  3. Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. (1836) 328; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 289; EPFP 2 (1923) 390; --Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph. (1858) 593; Adansonia 6 (1866)  334, excl. descr.; --Airy Shaw, Euph. Born. (1975) 196; --Phyllanthus virosus Roxb. ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 578. Photos


Glochidion J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

[Also considered as part of a broader delimited Phyllanthus]

Last edited by P.B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

Photos
  1. Glochidion album (Blanco) Boerl., Handl. Fl. Nederl. Ind. 3 (1900) 275; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 397; --Phyllanthus albus (Blanco) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 387; --Kirganelia alba Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 713. Taiwan, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan to Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, SIARGAO, DINAGAT, MINDANAO. In primary forests at low and medium elevation ascending to 1200m. Photos
  2. Glochidion angulatum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 91; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 397; --Type: FB 9487 Whitford & Hutchinson. Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. PANAY, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao del Sur, Davao. Low elevation thickets and forests.
  3. Glochidion benguetense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 304; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: Elmer 8770. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Laguna. Forests and forested ravines, 600-1400m.
  4. Glochidion brachystylum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 543; EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: BS 31374 Ramos & Edaño. PANAY: Capiz (Jamindan). Forest along small streams at low or medium elevation. Possibly a synonym of Glochidion album (Blanco) Boerl.
  5. Glochidion cagayanense C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 328; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: BS 7390 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. In forests at low elevation.
  6. Glochidion camiguinense Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 414; --C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) 100; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: BS 4108 Fenix (US, iso), Camiguin de Babuyanes, 21-Jun-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES. On slopes.
  7. Glochidion canescens Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3082; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: FB 25397 Mabesa (US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov. Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. LUZON: Laguna. Low wet places along the lakeshore of Laguna de Bay.
  8. Glochidion cauliflorum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 545; EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: FB 25183 Alvarez, Mindanao: Lanao District, near Camp Vickers, in dipterocarp forests, c. 900m, 17-Mar-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE: Leyte (Dagami, Mt Buraui), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao. Medium elevation primary forests.
  9. Glochidion cenabrei Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 463; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; --Type: FB 29174 Cenabre (US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Feb-1923. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  10. Glochidion coronulatum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 94; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: FB 13937 Merritt & Darling. --Glochidion balsahanense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1289; --Type: Elmer 12856 (MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, ‘gravelly soil of the densely wooded banks of the Balsahan River’, c. 250ft [=76m], Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, PALAWAN, LEYTE. Low elevation second-growth forests.
  11. Glochidion curranii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 102; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398; --Type: FB  3502 Curran (NY, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa & vicinity, Jan-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. CULION, PALAWAN. Low elevation thickets.
  12. Glochidion dolichostylum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 483; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; --Type: Merrill 9408. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Low elevation forests. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  13. Glochidion falcatilimbum Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 542; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; --Type: FB 30056 Fenix (P). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan. Open slopes, c. 60m.
  14. Glochidion gigantifolium (S.Vidal) J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 8 (1910) 223; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399; --Phyllanthus gigantifolius S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 237; --Type: FB 3374 Ahern’s Collector. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ifugao, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation primary forests.
  15. Glochidion glaucescens Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) 381; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; --Type: Wenzel 188. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Low elevation forests.
  16. Glochidion humile Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 544; EPFP 2 (1923) 399; --Type: BS 26112 Fenix. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Open grasslands, medium elevation.
  17. Glochidion lanceolatum Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 20(3) (1904) 16. Nansei-shoto, Taiwan, Philippines.
  18. Glochidion lancilimbum Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 462; EPFP 4 (1925) 248; --Phyllanthus lanceilimbus (Merr.) Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 402; --Type: BS 37012 Ramos & Edaño, Mindanao: Zamboanga. Borneo, Philippines, New Guinea. MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low elevation secondary forests.
  19. Glochidion latistylum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 93; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399; --Type: Clemens 340. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. On slopes, c. 800m.
  20. Glochidion ligulatum C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 329; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399; --Type: BS 7746 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. In forests.
  21. Glochidion littorale Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 585; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls. LUZON: Quezon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, PANAY, LEYTE, JOLO, MINDANAO. Coastal thickets and along tidal streams. Photos
  22. Glochidion longistylum C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 96; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400; --Type: BS 5057 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales. Low elevation.
  23. Glochidion lucidum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 584; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 29; --Phyllanthus lucidus (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 370. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea.
  24. Glochidion lutescens Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 585; --Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 29; --Phyllanthus lutescens (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 377. --Glochidion breynioides C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 95; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 398. S China, SE Asia and Malesia: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, DINAGAT. In forests, ascending to 1300m. Photos
  25. Glochidion luzonense Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 301; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400. Sumatra, Philippines. LUZON Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, La Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Zambales, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna. In forested ravines at low and medium elevation ascending to 1400m. Photos
  26. Glochidion malindangense Merr. ex C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 101; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400; --Type: FB 4696 Mearns & Hutchinson. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental. Forests, c. 1600m.
  27. Glochidion merrillii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 100; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400; --Type: RS  Williams 1356. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna (Mt Banahaw). Montane forests, 1500-2000m. Photos
  28. Glochidion mindorense C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 98; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; --Type: FB 12031 Merritt. Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. LUZON: Quezon, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, LEYTE, SAMAR. Low elevation thickets and forests.
  29. Glochidion molle Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 586; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; --Phyllanthus mollis (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 387. Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. PALAWAN, JOLO, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Lanao, Davao del Sur (Mt Apo). Low elevation thickets and forests.
  30. Glochidion palawanense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1290; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; --Type: Elmer 12804. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Forests along streams, c. 150m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  31. Glochidion philippicum (Cav.) C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 103; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 401; --Bradleia philippica Cav., Icon. 4 (1798) 48. Taiwan to Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, and New Guinea. N LUZON (Cagayan) to MINDANAO and PALAWAN. Common in thickets and forested ravines at low and medium elevation.
  32. Glochidion phyllanthoides Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 541; EPFP 2 (1923) 402. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas. Dry slopes at low elevation
  33. Glochidion psidioides C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 92; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya. In thickets on ridges and about boulders and ledges, 1200-2000m.
  34. Glochidion pubicapsa Airy Shaw, Euphorb. Born. (1975) 130; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip.  (1983) 31. --Glochidion pubicarpum Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3733, invalid name, no Latin descr. Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. Photos
  35. Glochidion pulgarense Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1291; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402; --Type: Elmer  13215 (L, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, low rigid shrub on  summit of Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), c. 1300m, May-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Pulgar (=Thumb’s Peak). Exposed ridges, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  36. Glochidion reticulatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 302; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402; --Type: Elmer 8188, Luzon: Laguna prov., Los Baños, Apr-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Cavite. Low elevation thickets.
  37. Glochidion robinsonii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2643; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Cotabato, Agusan, Davao. Low and medium elevation thickets and second-growth forests.
  38. Glochidion rubrum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 586; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 286; EPFP 2 (1923) 402; --Phyllanthus ruber (Blume) T.Kuros., J. Jap. Bot. 91 (2016) 119. Photos
  39. Glochidion subfalcatum Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 305; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 402; --Type: Elmer 8915 (A, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, open dry hot ridge west of Sablan Falls, Mar-1907. Photos
  40. Glochidion triandrum (Blanco) C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 92; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae  (1918) 217; EPFP 2 (1923) 403; --Phyllanthus triandrus (Blanco) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 379; --Kirganelia triandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 711; ed. 2 (1845) 492;  ed. 3, 3 (1879) 115; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 309 (US, neo), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., foot of Mt Isarog, c. 80m, 18-Nov-1913. --Glochidion eleutherostylum Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 69; --Type: Cuming 509 (P, lecto; GDC, isolecto). --Glochidion quinquestylum Elmer, LPB 1(1908) 303; --Type: Elmer 8916 (K, lecto; NY, US, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet Prov., W of Sablan Falls, Baguio, Mar-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Quezon, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines Sur, Albay, POLILLO, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, GUIMARAS, BILIRAN. In thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  41. Glochidion trichogynum Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 66; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 403; --Phyllanthus trichogynus (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 380; --Type: Cuming 1610, Mindanao: Misamis prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Baco, Pola, Bongabong River), PALAWAN (Thumb Peak), LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Sax River), Zamboanga del Sur (Port Banga), Misamis, Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Davao. Low and medium elevation forests.
  42. Glochidion trichophorum Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 484; EPFP 2 (1923) 403; --Type: BS 20831  Escritor (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Cadig, near Guinayangan, in forests, 7-Mar-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Camarines. Lowland forests along small streams.
  43. Glochidion urophylloides Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 300; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 403. --Glochidion lanceifolium C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 90, as 'lancifolium'; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 399. Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal to Camarines, POLILLO, MINDORO, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, BASILAN. In forests and forested ravines at low and medium elevation. Photos
  44. Glochidion weberi C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 330; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 403. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao, Agusan del Norte. Forests along streams, up to 500m.
  45. Glochidion williamsii C.B.Rob., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 199 (excl. descr. capsulae); PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 95 (descr. capsulae); --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 400. Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Laguna. Forested ravines and on ridges, 1000-1500m.
  46. Glochidion wisselense Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 27 (1972) 38; --Type: from New Guinea. Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls, New Guinea.
  47. Glochidion woodii Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 465; EPFP 4 (1925) 249. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Lanao del Sur, Davao. In thickets.
  48. Glochidion xerocarpum (O.Schwarz) Airy Shaw, Muelleria 4 (1980) 212; Alphab. Enum. Euph. Philip. (1983) 32; --Phyllanthus xerocarpus O.Schwarz, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24 (1927) 87. Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea.

Leptopus Decne.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 September 2017

Photos
  1. Leptopus australis (Zoll. & Moritzi) Pojark., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 20 (1960) 270; --Andrachne australis Zoll. & Moritzi, Natuur- Geneesk. Arch. Ned.-Indië 2 (1845) 17. China and Indo-China to Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan prov. Photos

Margaritaria L.f.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 November 2016

Photos
  1. Margaritaria indica (Dalz.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 387; Euph. Born. (1975) 175; --Webster, J. Arnold Arb. 60 (1979) 425; --Phyllanthus indicus (Dalz.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863)  52; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; --Prosorus indicus Dalz. in Hook., Kew J. Bot. 4 (1852) 346.
  2. Margaritaria luzoniensis (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 387; Kew Bull. 25 (1971) 492;  --Webster, J. Arnold Arb. 60 (1979) 424; --Phyllanthus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 404; EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Cavite, Batangas. Dry slopes at low elevation.

Phyllanthus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 September 2017

Photos
  1. Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels, US Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bull. 148 (1909) 17; --Cicca acida (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 314; EPFP 2 (1923) 396. --Cicca disticha L., Mant. 1 (1767) 124; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 396. Considered native to Brazil and introduced elsewhere. Cultivated for its edible fruits. Naturalized?
  2. Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., Kongl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 4 (1829) 195. --Phyllanthus niruri auct. non L., --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 75; Fl. Manila (1912) 284; EPFP 2 (1923) 394. Native to tropical and subtropical America. Naturalized throughout the Philippines. A common weed at low and medium elevation. Photos
  3. Phyllanthus anisophyllaeoides Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 465; EPFP 4 (1925) 249; --Type: BS 40585 Ramos & Edaño (L, US, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, Mar-1922. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). In forests, 1000m.
  4. Phyllanthus apiculatus Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 540; EPFP 2 (1923) 391; --Type: BS 33813 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Paracale, damp forests at low elevation, 29-Nov-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Camarines Norte (Paracale). Lowland forests.
  5. Phyllanthus balgooyi Petra Hoffm. & A.J.M.Baker, Blumea 48 (2003) 195; --Type: PNH 178 Edaño (K, holo; L, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Bacungan. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. PALAWAN. Restricted to ultramafics, in scrub or very stunted open forests, 150-200m. Sometimes locally common (Mt Bloomfield). In Sabah at 600-1000m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  6. Phyllanthus benguetensis C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 78; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 391; --Type: RS Williams 966. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Dry open banks, 1200-1600m.
  7. Phyllanthus blancoanus Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 49; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 391; --Type: Not extant, “Illustrative specimen”: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 160. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal. Forested slopes and ridges, 600-1000m.
  8. Phyllanthus buxifolius (Blume) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 50; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 391; --Scepasma buxifolia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 583. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls. LUZON: Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, ALABAT, CEBU, LEYTE. Lowland primary forests, usually along streams, in Benguet ascending to 1800m. Photos
  9. Phyllanthus caudatifolius Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 403; --Type: BS 43867 R.C. McGregor (NY, iso), Samar: Loquilocon, Jun-1924. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Loquilocon. 
  10. Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 3 (1893) 345. Indo-China to Philippines.
  11. Phyllanthus cordatulus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 76; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; --Type: BS 5106 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., 14-Dec-1907. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales.
  12. Phyllanthus curranii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 77; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; --Type: FB 10889. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal. Primary forests, 700-900m.
  13. Phyllanthus dumosus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 79; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte. Exposed ridges, c. 1100m.
  14. Phyllanthus erythrotrichus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 80; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Ifugao, Cagayan, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal, PANAY. Open slopes at low elevation, ascending to 1300m.
  15. Phyllanthus everettii C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 80; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; --Type: FB 4301 Everett. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, NEGROS. Forested stream banks, low and medium elevation.
  16. Phyllanthus glochidioides Elmer, LPB 4 (1911) 1302; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; --Type: Elmer 13104 (US, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa (Mt. Pulgar), Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Along streams in shaded ravines at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  17. Phyllanthus greenei Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 929; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 392; --Type: Elmer 12399. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, SIBUYAN. In ravines about boulders, sea-level to c. 500m. Very local.
  18. Phyllanthus laciniatus C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 84; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Albay, BATAN (off Albay province not in Batanes Group of Isls). Lowland forests.
  19. Phyllanthus lamprophyllus Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 152 (1866) 324; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. PALAWAN. Along streams at low elevation.
  20. Phyllanthus lancifolius Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 489; EPFP 2 (1923) 393; Ramos BS 17465 (US, iso), Samar, Mar/Apr-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. SIQUIJOR, SAMAR. On dry slopes.
  21. Phyllanthus leytensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 307; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393; --Type: Elmer 7267. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE. Lowland forests.
  22. Phyllanthus macgregorii C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 334; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393; --Type: BS 10128 R.C. McGregor. Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS (DALUPIRI).
  23. Phyllanthus megalanthus C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 335; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Quezon. Lowland and medium elevation thickets and forests. Photos
  24. Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32 (1863) 51; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 393; --Cicca microcarpa Benth., Fl. Hongk. (1861) 312. China to W Malesia, Philippines?
  25. Phyllanthus mindorensis C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 82; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 394. Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, MINDORO. Primary forests up to 800m elevation.
  26. Phyllanthus nigrescens (Blanco) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 348; --Kirganelia nigrescens Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 712. Endemic to the Philippines.
  27. Phyllanthus panayensis Merr., PJS 16 (1920) 539; EPFP 2 (1923) 394; --Type: BS 35655 Martelino & Edaño (L, US, syn), BS 35679 Martelino & Edaño (L, US, syn), Panay: Capiz prov., Mt  Bulilao, in forests near the summit, c. 650m, 20-Jun-1919. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. PANAY: Capiz (Mt Bulilao). Medium elevation forests. Photos
  28. Phyllanthus pumilus (Blanco) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15 (1866) 349; --Kirganelia pumila Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 712. Endemic to the Philippines.
  29. Phyllanthus ramosii Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 160; --Type: Ramos BS 47336 (US, iso), Luzon: Isabela, Mt. Moises, Mar-1926. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Mt Moises, Palanan). Along forested streams, near sea level to c. 1400m. Photos
  30. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 5 (1804) 298; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 284; EPFP 2 (1923) 394. India to S China and Taiwan, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines, in lowland and medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1400m. Photos
  31. Phyllanthus robinsonii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 405; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 395; --Type: BS 11058 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU. On dry slopes.
  32. Phyllanthus rupicola Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 927; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 395; --Type: Elmer 12240. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN, PANAY, CEBU. Shaded cliffs and on boulders along streams, 100-225m.
  33. Phyllanthus samarensis Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 73; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 395; --Type: Jagor s.n. Philippines, Sulawesi. SAMAR. Damp ravines along streams at low elevation.
  34. Phyllanthus securinegioides Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) 490; EPFP 2 (1923) 395. --Phyllanthus urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2650; --Type: Elmer 14163 (US, isosyn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran (Mt. Urdaneta), Oct-1912; Elmer 13936 (US, isosyn), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran (Mt. Urdaneta), Sep-1912. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Lowland forests in Quezon, ascending to 1500m in Mindanao.
  35. Phyllanthus sericeus (Blume) Müll.Arg., Flora 48 (1865) 390; --Glochidionopsis sericea Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 588. Indo-China to W Malesia, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  36. Phyllanthus sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 928; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 395; --Type: Elmer 12113. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. Forested slopes along streams, c. 225m.
  37. Phyllanthus stipularis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 75; EPFP 2 (1923) 395. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan (Mt Mariveles). Ridges and slopes in primary forest, 500-900m. Photos
  38. Phyllanthus tenuipes C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 78; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 396; --Type: Merrill 4419. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. On cliffs, ravines, and on banks, 1200-1500m.
  39. Phyllanthus triphlebius C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 82; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 396; --Type: LeRoy Topping 510. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon. On boulders and cliffs in shaded ravines along streams at low and medium elevation.
  40. Phyllanthus urinaria L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 982; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 285; EPFP 2 (1923) 396. Pantropic. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines. A weed in open waste places at low and medium elevation. Photos
  41. Phyllanthus virgatus G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 65. --Phyllanthus simplex Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 29; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 285; EPFP 2 (1923) 395.

Non-naturalized

  1. Phyllanthus emblica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 982. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas.

Sauropus Blume = Breynia

Synostemon F.Muell.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 5 September 2017

No photos
  1. Synostemon bacciformis (L.) G.L.Webster, Taxon 9 (1960) 26; --Sauropus bacciformis (L.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. ser. 8 (1980) 221; --Welzen, Blumea 48 (2003) 345; --Phyllanthus bacciformis L., Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 294. Mauritius, Maldives, India, Sri Lanka, S China, SE Asia mainland, W Malesia: Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Timor).

Acknowledgements

Benigno Resurreccion kindly provided some of the photos on this webpage.


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Last updated 5 September 2017