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Fagaceae

Castanopsis (D.Don) Spach

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Castanopsis evansii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1778; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 391; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 305. Borneo (rather common in SE Kalimantan), Banguey, Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests to 2000m (Borneo), on brown, clayey loam soil.
  2. Castanopsis glabra Merr., PJS C 9 (1915) 354. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Castanopsis inermis (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3 (1880) 409. --Castanopsis sumatrana (Miq.) A.DC., J. Bot. 1 (1863) 182; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines. PALAWAN: Puerto Princesa, Irawan River Valley, based on Soejarto et al. 6412 (A, F, PNH).
  4. Castanopsis motleyana King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1889) 96, t. 86; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 396; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 314. Borneo (throughout), Nunukan, MINDANAO. Primary, rarely secondary forests or disturbed hilly country to 500m. Photos
  5. Castanopsis philipensis (Blanco) Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 265; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25 (as ‘philippensis’); --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 399; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 316, Fig. 15a-d; --Fagus philippensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 503. --Castanopsis javanica (non A.DC.) Vidal. --Castanopsis inermis (non Benth. & Hook.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 24, non (Lindley) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Jackson, Index Kewensis 1 (1895) 456. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Forests, 400-1800m. Photos
  6. Castanopsis psilophylla Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 401; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 315. Borneo (Sabah, N Sarawak, E Kalimantan), Banguey, PALAWAN (based on Ebalo 408). Lowland forest.

Lithocarpus Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Lithocarpus apoensis (Elmer) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 217; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 354; --Quercus apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 946; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 1000-1700m. Flowering Mar-Dec, fruiting Apr-Sep. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Lithocarpus boholensis (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 10 (1929) 132; --Quercus boholensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 476; --Type: Ramos 43350 (BM, K, US, A), Bohol: Oct-1923. BOHOL.
  3. Lithocarpus bullatus Hatus. ex Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 223, f. 11. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN (Soejarto 6432 (L), 6-Apr-1989, Palawan Ridge between Mt Viadung and Mt Beufort on chromite rich soil).
  4. Lithocarpus castellarnauianus (Vidal) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 84; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 226; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 377; --Quercus castellarnauiana Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 264; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. --Quercus merrittii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 325; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus obliquinervia Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 250; EPFP 2 (1923) 29. --Quercus cagayanensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 6; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON (common): Ilocos Sur, Abra, Benguet (Pauai), Cagayan (Pamplona), Zambales,  Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, MARINDUQUE, SAMAR, LEYTE (rare). Forests at (60) 200-2200m. Flowering Aug-Jul, fruiting Sep-May.
  5. Lithocarpus caudatifolius (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia   8 (1970) 226; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 350; --Quercus caudatifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 324; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. --Quercus minahassae Koord., Syst. Verzeich. 3 (1911) 28; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3736, invalid name, no Latin descr. Borneo (Sabah, SE Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Abra (La Paz), Pangasinan, Zambales (Botolan), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Rizal (Bosoboso), Camarines, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Low to medium elevation primary and secondary forests, on ridges, along rivers, ascending to 1350m on Mt Apo. Flowering Sep-Jun, fruiting May-Jan.
  6. Lithocarpus celebicus (Miq.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123); --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 227; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 374; --Quercus celebica Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863-64) 110; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. --Quercus llanosii A.DC., Prodr. 162 (1864) 97, excl. syn. Blanco; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus lipacon Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1983; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. --Quercus mabesae Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 7; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea (incl. Goodenough and Fergusson Is). LUZON: Cagayan (San Vicente), Bataan (Lamao River), Rizal (Bosoboso; Tanay), Laguna (Mt Makiling), LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forests at low and medium elevation, 20-1200m, but more common in the lowlands below 800m, on clayey soil. Fl. Sep-May, fruiting Jun-Apr.
  7. Lithocarpus coopertus (Blanco) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 124 (as ‘cooperta’); --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 231; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 335, Fig. 22e-f; --Quercus cooperta Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 503; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26; --Type: Elmer 14012 (L, NY, US, isoneo), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. --Quercus pruinosa Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 940; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30, non Blume (1825). --Quercus reflexa King in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1888) 616; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan (Angat), Quezon (E coast), LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya), Surigao. Forests, from low elevation to 1200m. Common in Mindanao, rare and scattered in Luzon, Leyte, Samar. Flowering Feb-Oct, fruiting Nov-May. Photos
  8. Lithocarpus glutinosus (Blume) Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 243; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 354; --Quercus glutinosa Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 304. --Quercus zschokkei Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 944; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. --Quercus copelandii Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1984; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 75-900m.
  9. Lithocarpus gracilis (Korth.) Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 243; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 362; --Quercus gracilis Korth., Kruidk. (1844)  207. --Quercus cyrtorrhyncha Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-61) 350; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 939; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. S Sumatra (and Simalur Is), Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo (incl. Nunukan and Laut Is). MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Elmer 11299 & 11789). Forest, c. 600m.
  10. Lithocarpus jordanae (Laguna) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 127; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 250; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 382; --Quercus jordanae Laguna, Apuntes Sobre Nuev. Roble Filip. (1875) 7, plate; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Pauai; Mt Pulog; Mt Sto Tomas; Baguio), Nueva Vizcaya. Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 1200-2400m. Rather common. Flowering Jan, Jul, fruiting Aug-Apr. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  11. Lithocarpus luzoniensis (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 133; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 256; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 381; --Quercus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 323; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Mt Pulag, Pauai, Mt Nangaoto, Mt Sto Tomas), Zambales (Mt Tapulao =High Peak). Mossy forests, 1500-2700m. Rather common in the Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon. Flowering Jan-Jun, Fruiting Jul-Mar. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  12. Lithocarpus mindanaensis (Elmer) Rehder, Arn. Arb. 1 (1919) 128; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 261; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 355; --Quercus mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus dasystachya `lasystachya' Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 938; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27, non Miq. (1863-64). Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE , MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur (Port Banga), Misamis, Lanao del Norte (Maria Cristina Falls), Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Davao, Surigao del Norte (Placer). Common in Mindanao, scattered in Leyte. Low to medium elevation forests, 20-1000m, more commonly encountered below 600m. Flowering Oct-Mar, fruiting May-Sep.
  13. Lithocarpus nieuwenhuisii (Seem.) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 255; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 262; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 379; --Quercus nieuwenhuisii Seem., Bull. Dép. Agr. Ind. Néerl. 1 (1906) 6. --Quercus clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 321; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Borneo (Sarawak, Kalimantan, Brunei, Sabah), Nunukan Is, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Forests at low and medium elevation. Rare. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year.
  14. Lithocarpus ovalis (Blanco) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 129; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 264; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 361; --Quercus ovalis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 502; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Zambales, Pampanga (Mt Abu), Bulacan (Angat), Rizal (Bosoboso), Batangas (Mt Malarayat), Camarines. Low elevation forests. Fl. Nov-Apr, fruiting Jun-Aug. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  15. Lithocarpus philippinensis (A.DC.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 129; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 267; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 353; --Quercus philippinensis A.DC., Prodr. 162 (1864) 97; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. --Quercus wenzelii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 267; EPFP 2 (1923) 31. --Quercus rizalensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 30. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva  Vizcaya, Zambales (Mt Tapulao), Rizal (Mt Lumutan), Laguna, Quezon (Mt Binuang; Mt Banahaw), Batangas (Mt Malarayat), Camarines, LEYTE (Buenavista near Jaro), SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests on the higher mountains, 500 to 2000m. Flowering Dec-Jul, fruiting Oct-Nov.
  16. Lithocarpus robinsonii Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 1 (1919) 130. --Lithocarpus buddii (Merr.) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 85; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 222; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 383; --Quercus buddii Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 6; --Quecus robinsonii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 30, non Ridley (1914). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon (Infanta), LEYTE, SAMAR. Forests, 200-1000m. Common on Mt Makiling, rare in Samar and Leyte. Flowering Oct-Jun, fruiting Jun-Dec. Photos
  17. Lithocarpus rotundatus (Blume) A.Camus, Riviera Scient. 18 (1932) 41 (as ‘rotundata’); --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 275; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 331; --Quercus rotundata Blume, Verh. Bat. Gen. K. & W. 9 (1823) 219. --Quercus curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 329; EPFP 2 (1923) 27. W Java, Borneo (Sabah) and the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Banahaw). Forests, 800-900m on Mt Banahaw. Flowering Jul-Oct, fruiting Oct-Feb.
  18. Lithocarpus solerianus (Vidal) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 279; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 355; --Quercus soleriana Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 261; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. --Lithocarpus bicoloratus (Elmer) A.Camus, Rivièra Sci. 18 (1931) 39; --Quercus bicolorata Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1985; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Twin Peaks), Bulacan (Angat), Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Rizal (Bosoboso), Laguna (Mabitac), Batangas, Quezon (Unisan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Malasimbo, Mt Halcon, Mt Inauan), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo: Todaya), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forests at 700-1200m. Flowering Aug-May, fruiting Apr-Oct. Photos
  19. Lithocarpus submonticolus (Elmer) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 280; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 377; --Quercus submonticola Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 943; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. --Quercus monticola Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29, non King (1889), nec Petz. & Kirchn. LUZON (common), MINDORO (rare), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forests, 1000-1700m. Flowering Sep-May, fruiting Jun-Dec.
  20. Lithocarpus sulitii Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 280; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 359; --Type: PNH 17646 Sulit & Conklin (L, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mansalay, Mt Yagaw, E slope, 617m, 1-Jun-1953. --Quercus bennettii (non Miq.) Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25, quoad FB 759, 781, Whitford 365, Williams 705, BS 32958. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales (Masinloc), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Rizal (Antipolo), Laguna (Mt Makiling), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw). Low to medium elevation forests in regions with pronounced dry season, up to 700m. Common in Luzon, rare in Mindoro. Flowering Sep-Jan, fruiting Feb-Jun. Photos
  21. Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8   (1970) 282; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; --Quercus sundaica Blume, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 9 (1825) 216; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo and the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests, up to 1900m, commonly found between 500-1500m. Photos
  22. Lithocarpus vidalii (Fern.-Villar) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 134; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 285; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; --Quercus vidalii Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 209; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Forests, 1100-1800m. Flowering Feb-May, fruiting Jun-Nov.
  23. Lithocarpus woodii (Hance) A.Camus, Riviera Scient. 18 (1932) 42; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 287; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; --Quercus woodii Hance, J. Bot. 12 (1874) 240; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Baguio), SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests, 1200-2300m, must be below 900m in Samar. Flowering Aug-Jun, fruiting Apr-Nov.

Of doubtful occurrence in the Philippines

  1. Lithocarpus oreophilus Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 264. Philippine records fide Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942, are not confirmed. Elmer had specimens of L. submonticolus. According to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (1-Aug-2017), Lithocarpus oreophilus Soepadmo is a synonym of Lithocarpus monticola (Koidz.) Rehder and endemic to Sumatra.
  2. Lithocarpus aff. meijeri Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 260; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah). PALAWAN: San Vicente, Pagdanan Timber Concession, Soejarto & Madulid 6366 (PNH, F).

Quercus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Quercus merrillii Seem., Fedde Repert. 5 (1908) 21; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28; --Soepadmo, Gard.  Bull. Sing. 22 (1968) 397; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 394. Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah), Nunukan Is, Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak). Mossy thickets at summit, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Quercus subsericea A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 80 (1933) 254. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Non-naturalized:

  1. Castanea mollissima Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 286; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 24. Photos

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Phenklai, C. 2006. A synoptic account of the Fagaceae of Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin 34: 53-175

Soepadmo, E. 1972. Fagaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 7: 265-403

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Last updated 18 August 2017