banner small

Fagaceae

Castanopsis (D.Don) Spach

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 3 November 2017

Photos
  1. Castanopsis evansii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1778; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 391; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 305. Borneo, Banguey, Philippines. PALAWAN. Lowland forests to 2000m (Borneo), on brown, clayey loam soil.
  2. Castanopsis glabra Merr., PJS C 9 (1915) 354. Endemic to the Philippines.
  3. Castanopsis inermis (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3 (1880) 409; --Castanea inermis Lindl. in Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2 (1830) 6. --Castanopsis sumatrana (Miq.) A.DC., J. Bot. 1 (1863) 182; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Callaeocarpus sumatrana Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1851) 14. Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines. PALAWAN: Puerto Princesa, Irawan River Valley (Soejarto et al. 6412, A, F, PNH).
  4. Castanopsis motleyana King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 2 (1889) 96; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 396; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 314. Borneo (throughout), Nunukan, MINDANAO. Primary, rarely secondary forests or disturbed hilly country to 500m. Photos
  5. Castanopsis philipensis (Blanco) S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 265; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25, as ‘philippensis’; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 399; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 316; --Fagus philippensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 503. --Castanopsis javanica auct. non (Blume) A.DC.; sensu S.Vidal. --Castanopsis inermis auct. non (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 24. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BASILAN. Forests, 400-1800m. Photos
  6. Castanopsis psilophylla Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 7 (1968) 401; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 315. Borneo (Sabah, N Sarawak, E Kalimantan), Banguey, PALAWAN (based on Ebalo 408). Lowland forest.

Lithocarpus Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Lithocarpus apoensis (Elmer) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 217; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 354; --Quercus apoensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 946; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, CATANDUANES, PANAY, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 1000-1700m. Fl. Mar-Dec; fr. Apr-Sep. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Lithocarpus boholensis (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 10 (1929) 132; --Quercus boholensis Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 476; --Type: Ramos 43350 (BM, K, US, A), Bohol: Oct-1923. BOHOL.
  3. Lithocarpus bullatus Hatus. ex Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 223. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN (Soejarto 6432, L, 6-Apr-1989, Palawan Ridge between Mt Viadung and Mt Beufort on chromite rich soil).
  4. Lithocarpus castellarnauianus (S.Vidal) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 84; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 226; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 377; --Quercus castellarnauiana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 264; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. --Quercus merrittii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 325; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus obliquinervia Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 250; EPFP 2 (1923) 29. --Quercus cagayanensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 6; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON (common): Ilocos Sur, Abra, Benguet (Pauai), Cagayan (Pamplona), Zambales,  Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, MARINDUQUE, SAMAR, LEYTE (rare). Forests at (60-)200-2200m. Fl. Aug-Jul; fr. Sep-May.
  5. Lithocarpus caudatifolius (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia   8 (1970) 226; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 350; --Quercus caudatifolia Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 324; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. --Quercus minahassae Koord., Syst. Verzeich. 3 (1911) 28; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3736, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Borneo (Sabah, SE Kalimantan), Philippines. LUZON: Abra (La Paz), Pangasinan, Zambales (Botolan), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Rizal (Bosoboso), Camarines, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Low to medium elevation primary and secondary forests, on ridges, along rivers, ascending to 1350m on Mt Apo. Fl. Sep-Jun; fr. May-Jan.
  6. Lithocarpus celebicus (Miq.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 123); --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 227; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 374; --Quercus celebica Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1863-64) 110; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. --Quercus llanosii A.DC., Prodr. 162 (1864) 97; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus lipacon Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1983; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. --Quercus mabesae Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 7; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea (incl. Goodenough and Fergusson Is). LUZON: Cagayan (San Vicente), Bataan (Lamao River), Rizal (Bosoboso; Tanay), Laguna (Mt Makiling), LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forests at low and medium elevation, 20-1200m, but more common in the lowlands below 800m, on clayey soil. Fl. Sep-May; fr. Jun-Apr.
  7. Lithocarpus coopertus (Blanco) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 124, as ‘cooperta’; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 231; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 335; --Quercus cooperta Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 503; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26; --Type: Elmer 14012 (L, NY, US, isoneo), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta, Oct-1912. --Quercus pruinosa auct. non Blume; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 940; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. --Quercus reflexa King in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1888) 616; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Bulacan (Angat), Quezon (E coast), LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya), Surigao. Forests, from low elevation to 1200m. Common in Mindanao, rare and scattered in Luzon, Leyte, Samar. Fl. Feb-Oct; fr. Nov-May. Photos
  8. Lithocarpus glutinosus (Blume) Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 243; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 354; --Quercus glutinosa Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 304. --Quercus zschokkei Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 944; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. --Quercus copelandii Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1984; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Philippines, Sulawesi. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao (Mt Apo). Forests, 75-900m.
  9. Lithocarpus gracilis (Korth.) Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 243; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 362; --Quercus gracilis Korth., Kruidk. (1844)  207. --Quercus cyrtorrhyncha Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-61) 350; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 939; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. S Sumatra (and Simalur Is), Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo (incl. Nunukan and Laut Is). MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Elmer 11299 & 11789). Forest, c. 600m.
  10. Lithocarpus jordanae (Laguna) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 127; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 250; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 382; --Quercus jordanae Laguna, Apuntes Sobre Nuev. Roble Filip. (1875) 7; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Pauai; Mt Pulog; Mt Sto Tomas; Baguio), Nueva Vizcaya. Mossy forests on the higher mountains, 1200-2400m. Rather common. Fl. Jan, Jul; fr. Aug-Apr. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  11. Lithocarpus luzoniensis (Merr.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 133; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 256; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 381; --Quercus luzoniensis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 323; EPFP 2 (1923) 28. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province (Mt Data), Benguet (Mt Pulag, Pauai, Mt Nangaoto, Mt Sto Tomas), Zambales (Mt Tapulao = High Peak). Mossy forests, 1500-2700m. Rather common in the Cordillera Highlands of N Luzon. Fl. Jan-Jun; fr. Jul-Mar. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  12. Lithocarpus mindanaensis (Elmer) Rehder, Arn. Arb. 1 (1919) 128; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 261; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 355; --Quercus mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28. --Quercus dasystachya auct. non Miq.; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 938, as 'lasystachya'; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 27. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga del Sur (Port Banga), Misamis, Lanao del Norte (Maria Cristina Falls), Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Davao, Surigao del Norte (Placer). Common in Mindanao, scattered in Leyte. Low to medium elevation forests, 20-1000m, more commonly encountered below 600m. Fl. Oct-Mar; fr. May-Sep.
  13. Lithocarpus nieuwenhuisii (Seem.) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 255; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 262; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 379; --Quercus nieuwenhuisii Seem., Bull. Dép. Agr. Ind. Néerl. 1 (1906) 6. --Quercus clementis Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 321; EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Borneo (Sarawak, Kalimantan, Brunei, Sabah), Nunukan Is, Philippines. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Forests at low and medium elevation. Rare. Fl. & fl. throughout the year.
  14. Lithocarpus ovalis (Blanco) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 129; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 264; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 361; --Quercus ovalis Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 502; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Zambales, Pampanga (Mt Abu), Bulacan (Angat), Rizal (Bosoboso), Batangas (Mt Malarayat), Camarines. Low elevation forests. Fl. Nov-Apr; fr. Jun-Aug. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  15. Lithocarpus philippinensis (A.DC.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 129; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 267; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 353; --Quercus philippinensis A.DC., Prodr. 162 (1864) 97; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. --Quercus wenzelii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 267; EPFP 2 (1923) 31. --Quercus rizalensis Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 272; EPFP 2 (1923) 30. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva  Vizcaya, Zambales (Mt Tapulao), Rizal (Mt Lumutan), Laguna, Quezon (Mt Binuang; Mt Banahaw), Batangas (Mt Malarayat), Camarines, LEYTE (Buenavista near Jaro), SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests on the higher mountains, 500 to 2000m. Fl. Dec-Jul; fr. Oct-Nov.
  16. Lithocarpus robinsonii Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 1 (1919) 130. --Lithocarpus buddii (Merr.) A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 92 (1945) 85; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 222; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 383; --Quercus buddii Merr., PJS 35 (1928) 6; --Quercus robinsonii Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 297; EPFP 2 (1923) 30, nom. illeg, auct. non Ridl. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon (Infanta), LEYTE, SAMAR. Forests, 200-1000m. Common on Mt Makiling, rare in Samar and Leyte. Fl. Oct-Jun; fr. Jun-Dec. Photos
  17. Lithocarpus rotundatus (Blume) A.Camus, Riviera Scient. 18 (1932) 41, as ‘rotundata’; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 275; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 331; --Quercus rotundata Blume, Verh. Bat. Gen. K. & W. 9 (1823) 219. --Quercus curranii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 329; EPFP 2 (1923) 27. W Java, Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Banahaw). Forests, 800-900m on Mt Banahaw. Fl. Jul-Oct; fr. Oct-Feb.
  18. Lithocarpus solerianus (S.Vidal) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 279; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 355; --Quercus soleriana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 261; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 30. --Lithocarpus bicoloratus (Elmer) A.Camus, Rivièra Sci. 18 (1931) 39; --Quercus bicolorata Elmer, LPB 6 (1913) 1985; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 26. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Twin Peaks), Bulacan (Angat), Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Rizal (Bosoboso), Laguna (Mabitac), Batangas, Quezon (Unisan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Malasimbo, Mt Halcon, Mt Inauan), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo: Todaya), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forests at 700-1200m. Fl. Aug-May; fr. Apr-Oct. Photos
  19. Lithocarpus submonticolus (Elmer) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 280; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 377; --Quercus submonticola Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 943; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. --Quercus monticola auct. non G.Kirchn.; --Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 29. LUZON (common), MINDORO (rare), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Forests, 1000-1700m. Fl. Sep-May; fr. Jun-Dec.
  20. Lithocarpus sulitii Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 280; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 359; --Type: PNH 17646 Sulit & Conklin (L, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mansalay, Mt Yagaw, E slope, 617m, 1-Jun-1953. --Quercus bennettii auct. non Miq.; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 25 (FB 759, 781, Whitford 365, Williams 705, BS 32958). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales (Masinloc), Bataan (Mt Mariveles, Lamao River), Rizal (Antipolo), Laguna (Mt Makiling), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Yagaw). Low to medium elevation forests in regions with pronounced dry season, up to 700m. Common in Luzon, rare in Mindoro. Fl. Sep-Jan; fr. Feb-Jun. Photos
  21. Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 131; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8   (1970) 282; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; --Quercus sundaica Blume, Verh. Bat. Genoots. 9 (1825) 216; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo). Primary forests, up to 1900m, commonly found between 500-1500m. Photos
  22. Lithocarpus vidalii (Fern.-Vill.) Rehder, J. Arnold Arb. 1 (1919) 134; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 285; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; --Quercus vidalii Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 209; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Forests, 1100-1800m. Fl. Feb-May; fr. Jun-Nov.
  23. Lithocarpus woodii (Hance) A.Camus, Riviera Scient. 18 (1932) 42; --Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 287; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 358; --Quercus woodii Hance, J. Bot. 12 (1874) 240; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 31. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet (Baguio), SAMAR, MINDANAO. Forests, 1200-2300m, must be below 900m in Samar. Fl. Aug-Jun; fr. Apr-Nov.

Of doubtful occurrence in the Philippines:

  1. Lithocarpus oreophilus Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 264. Philippine records fide Elmer, LPB 3 (1910) 942, are not confirmed. Elmer had specimens of Lithocarpus submonticolus. According to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (3-Nov-2017), Lithocarpus oreophilus Soepadmo is a synonym of Lithocarpus monticola (Koidz.) Rehder and endemic to Sumatra.
  2. Lithocarpus aff. meijeri Soepadmo, Reinwardtia 8 (1970) 260; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah). PALAWAN: San Vicente, Pagdanan Timber Concession, Soejarto & Madulid 6366 (PNH, F).

Quercus L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos

  1. Quercus merrillii Seem., Fedde Repert. 5 (1908) 21; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 28; --Soepadmo, Gard. Bull. Sing. 22 (1968) 397; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1972) 394. Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah), Nunukan Is, Philippines. PALAWAN: Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak). Mossy thickets at summit, c. 1300m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Quercus subsericea A.Camus, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 80 (1933) 254. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Non-naturalized:

  1. Castanea mollissima Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 1 (1850) 286; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 24. Photos

Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Phenklai, C. 2006. A synoptic account of the Fagaceae of Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin 34: 53-175

Soepadmo, E. 1972. Fagaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 7: 265-403

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 3 November 2017