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Dilleniaceae

Dillenia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2018

Photos
  1. Dillenia cauliflora Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 517; EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Type: BS 1695 Ramos (PNH, holo, probably lost; BM, BRI, BO, CAL, G, L, MO, NY, P, SING, US, iso). SAMAR, LEYTE, MINDANAO (NE coast). Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  2. Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Gilg in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 6 (1893) 123; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Hoogl., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 169. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Banka, W Java (E to Nusa Kambangan), Borneo, SW Philippines. BALABAC.
  3. Dillenia fischeri Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 518; EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 27; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 161; --Type: FB 20534 Miranda (P, lecto; BM, K, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., near Butuan, 3-Sep-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Known only from two collections from the type locality. Semi-open forests, c. 20m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  4. Dillenia luzoniensis (Vidal) Merr. PJS 1 (Suppl.) (1906) 95; --EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 93, Fig. 10a-d; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 168; --Wormia luzoniensis Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 36; --Type: Comisión de la Flora Forestál de Filipinas 3 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; FI, K, isolecto), Luzon: Zambales prov. --Dillenia diantha Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 57, Fig. 7; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 165; --Type: Whitford 1320 (NY, holo; G, K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Bangui), Cagayan (Claveria), Aurora (Baler, Cemento), Zambales (type locality), Bataan (Bagac), Rizal (Montalban, Mt Paningtingan; Balacbac); PALAWAN (St Paul’s Bay National Park; Mt Bloomfield; Sta. Cruz; Thumb Peak; Mt Beaufort; Irawan; Iwahig; Aborlan, Malasgao River; Victoria Mtns; Narra, Trident Mines; Rio Tuba, Balanjao Range), BALABAC (Cape Melville). Low elevation forests along riverbanks. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  5. Dillenia marsupialis Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 66, Fig. 8 c; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 162; --Type: BS 75247 Ramos & Edaño (NY, holo; CAL, SING, P, UC, iso), Catanduanes: Mt Abucay. Dillenia ochreata (non Martelli) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 61. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Palimlim), Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya (Caraballo Mtns), Rizal (Montalban), Quezon (Mt Banahaw; Lucban), Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, CATANDUANES, PANAY: Aklan (Libacao). In forests, up to 1200m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Dillenia megalantha Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 519; EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Hoogl., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 163; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 61; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 163; --Type: BS 17581 Ramos (PNH, holo, probably lost; BM, lecto; K, P, US, isolecto). --Dillenia mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2611; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Type: Elmer 11883 (A, iso; BM, BO, CAL, E, G, K, L, MO, NY, US), Mindanao, Davao, Mt Apo (Todaya). LUZON: Quezon (Umiray: Mt Tulaog near Infanta; Lucban & Kinatakutan), Albay, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), SAMAR (Catubig River; Concord), DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Zamboanga peninsula (Mt Tubuan & Malangas), Davao (Mt Apo, type locality), Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), Surigao del Norte (Mt Kabatuan). In primary forests, up to 1000m, often on riverbanks. Photos
  7. Dillenia monantha Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 321; EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 102; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 170; --Type: Merrill 9237 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; A, BM, BO, CAL, F, GH, K, MO, NY, P, SING, US, isolecto), Palawan: Taytay. BUSUANGA, CULION, DUMARAN, PALAWAN (Taytay; Lake Manguao; Binohan Mtn near Puerto Princesa). Dry secondary forests and open grasslands at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  8. Dillenia papyracea Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 520; EPFP 3 (1923) 61; --Hoogl., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4  (1951) 158; --Type: BS 16339 Reillo (K, US, iso), Basilan. --Dillenia megalophylla Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 421; EPFP 3 (1923) 60; --Type: BS 33034 Ramos (A, K, P, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Bangui to Claveria. --Dillenia pteropoda sensu Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 28 and Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 143, pro parte (typ. excl.). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, BASILAN, MINDANAO (Zamboanga, Lanao). In lowland primary forests.
  9. Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 307; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 331; EPFP   3 (1923) 61; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 62; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 164. --Type: Vidal 4 (K, holo; FI, L, iso), Panay: Iloilo prov. --Dillenia catmon Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2610; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 59. --Type: Elmer 13564 (A, BM, BO, C, CAL, E, FI, G, GH, K, L, MO, NY-2 sheets, P, U, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt  Urdaneta. --Dillenia bolsteri Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 305; EPFP 3 (1923) 59; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 54, Fig. 6; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 165; --Type: Bolster 311 (PNH, holo, lost), BS 34784 Ramos & Pascasio (L, neo; A, BM, BO, K, P, US, isoneo), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov. Endemic to the Philippines; widespread but absent from Palawan. Photos
  10. Dillenia reifferscheidia Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 3; Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 344; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 61; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 68; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 162; --Type (Based on Reifferscheidia speciosa C.Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2 (1836) 74, t. 62): Haenke, s.n. (PR, not seen by Hoogland). --Dillenia reifferscheidia var. rosea Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3079; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 61; --Type: Elmer 18025 (A, C, CAL, FI, G, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, S, U, UC, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Isabela (Palanan), Rizal, Laguna (Mt Makiling; San Antonio), Quezon (Mt Tulaog), Albay, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), CATANDUANES (Mt Pagmasuso), NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Canlaon), PANAY: Iloilo (Leon), Capiz (Agsabay; Pilar; Mt Upao), MINDANAO: Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo), Surigao del Norte (Tubud; Placer). In primary and secondary forests, particularly in more humid regions, up to 1000m. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  11. Dillenia sibuyanensis (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 62; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 99; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 170; --Type: Elmer 12087 (PNH, holo, lost; L, lecto; A, BM, BO, CAL, E, FI, G, GH, K, MO, NA, NY, P, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting). Scattered along forested riverbanks, from about sea-level to 300m. SIBUYAN, PANAY: Aklan. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Cultivated in the Philippines:

  1. Dillenia indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 535; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 108; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 171; --Type: Illustration from Rheede, Hort. Mal. 3 (1683) 39-42, t. 38-39. India, Myanmar, S China (Yunnan), Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java and Borneo. Naturalized in the Philippines where it is a cultivated as an ornamental tree. Cultivated in Australia, Hawaii, and tropical America. Photos
  2. Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff.) Martelli in Becc., Malesia 3 (1886) 163; --Hoogl., Blumea 7 (1952) 70;  Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 162, Fig. 10; --Wormia suffruticosa Griff., Not. 4 (1854) 706; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia (Malacca). Widespread in Malesia from Sumatra to the Philippines. But indigenous only from Sumatra to Borneo. Naturalized in the Philippines and Java where it is cultivated as an ornamental treelet. Photos

Tetracera L.

Photos
  1. Tetracera akara (Burm.f.) Merr., PJS 19 (1921) 366; --Hoogl., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 146. S India, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, W Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and BASILAN. Lowland forests.
  2. Tetracera fagifolia Blume, Bijdr. 1 (1825) 4; --Hoogl., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 148, Fig. 2.
  3. Tetracera korthalsii Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1868) 75.
  4. Tetracera scandens (L.) Merr., Interpret. Herb. Amb. (1917) 365; EPFP 3 (1923) 59; --Hoogl., Fl. Males. ser. 1, 4 (1951) 143, excluding synonyms Delima sarmentosa L. & Tetracera sarmentosa (L.) Vahl. Andaman Isls, Myanmar, S China (Yunnan), S Thailand, S Indochina, throughout W Malesia, not E of the Philippines, Sulawesi, and the Lesser Sunda Isls. Photos

Ackknowledgements

Jasper Obico and Greg Rule provided some of the photos on this webpage.


Literature

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Hoogland, RD. 1951. Dilleniaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 4: 141-174

Hoogland, RD. 1952. A revision of the genus Dillenia. Blumea 7: 1-145

Hoogland, RD. 1953. The genus Tetracera in the Eastern World. Reinwardtia 2: 185-225.

Hoogland, RD. 1959. Additional notes on Dilleniaceae 1—9. Blumea 9: 577-589


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Last updated 18 August 2017