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Boraginaceae

including Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Hydrophyllaceae

Argusia Boehmer = Heliotropium

Bothriospermum Bunge [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

No Photos
  1. Bothriospermum tenellum (Hornem.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Ind. Sem. Hort. Petr. (1835) 24; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 379; --Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 463; --Anchusa tenella Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn. 1 (1813) 176; --Type: from China. --Bothriospermum zeylanicum (J.Jacq.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Is. 1916 (1917) 610; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 63; --Anchusa zeylanica J.Jacq., Ecl. Pl. Rar. 1 (1813) 47, nom. illeg., auct. non Vahl; --Type: Plate in J. Jacq., Eclogae 1 (1813) 47. Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China and adjacent parts of former USSR, Japan, Java (naturalized), Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Waste places about rice paddies, along streams, etc., 1300-1500m.

Carmona Cav. = Ehretia

Coldenia L. [sometimes in Cordiaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos
  1. Coldenia procumbens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 125; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 396; EPFP 3 (1923) 376; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 13; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 67; --Type: Plukenet, Phytographia, t. 64, f. 6. --Coldenia procumbens var. aristata Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 376. Widespread in tropical and subtropical SE Asia, Africa and Australia. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Hainan, Taiwan, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java (incl. Madura), Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores, Timor), Moluccas, New Guinea. In dry regions subject to seasonal flooding, ricelands, etc. Photos

Cordia L. [sometimes in Cordiaceae]

Photos

  1. Cordia aspera G.Forst., Fl. Austral. (1786) 18; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 72; --Type: from Australia. --Cordia cumingiana S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1885) 187; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 373; --Type: Cuming 1012 (syn), Cuming 1647 (syn), Cuming 1653 (syn).
  2. Cordia dichotoma G.Forst., Prodr. (1786) 18; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 373; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 8; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 75; --Type: from New Caledonia. --Cordia myxa auct. non L.; --C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1883) 136; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 393. New Caledonia, New Guinea, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Alor, Timor), Sulawesi, Philippines, Java, Borneo, Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra. Throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Usually common in secondary forests, thickets, etc. from sea level to c. 500m. Photos
  3. Cordia gerascanthus L., Syst. Veg., ed. 10 (1759) 936; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 77; --Type: from Jamaica. Native of the neotropics. Mexico, C America, West Indies, Colombia. Introduced in cultivation in the Philippines. Not naturalized.
  4. Cordia subcordata Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1792) 421; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 374; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 3; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 78; --Type: Commerson s.n. (P-JU), ‘ex insulis Praliniis’. E coast of Africa, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Pacific Islands, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Kangean Isls, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumbawa, Flores, Alor, Timor), Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON: La Union, Batangas, Quezon, Camarines, POLILLO, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BURIAS, MINDANAO, TAWI-TAWI, JOLO, BASILAN. Forests and thickets along the seashore, often common. Photos

Cynoglossum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos

  1. Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt. Arab. (1775) 41; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 379; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 87; --Type: from Yemen. Widespread in NE, E, and S Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas, India, China, Japan, Taiwan, Indochina, Thailand, Myanmar, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya. Montane meadows and thin pine forests from medium elevation to 2000m.
  2. Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vahl) Brand in Engl., Pflanzenreich fam. IV. 252 (1921) 134; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 379; --Anchusa zeylanica Vahl, Enum. Pl. Hort. Hafn. ed. 2 (1807) 20. --Cynoglossum furcatum Wall. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 6; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 83; --Type: described from a plant in the Botanical Garden, Calcutta, native in Nepal. Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas, India, China, Japan, Philippines, Java. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Chiefly on montane meadows or grassy slopes, 1200-2200m.

Ehretia L. [sometimes Ehretiaceae]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 12 March 2013

Photos
  1. Ehretia acuminata R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 497; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 374; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 21; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 92; --Type: from Australia. --Ehretia acuminata R.Br. var. polyantha (A.DC.) I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 23; --Ehretia polyantha A.DC., Prodr. 9 (1845) 511; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 246; --Type: Perrottet (GE), Philippines. Australia, New Guinea, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor), Java, Philippines, China. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Davao. Low elevation primary and secondary forests.
  2. Ehretia aquatica (Lour.) Gottschling & Hilger, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 123(2) (2001) 263; --Rotula aquatica Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 121; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 376; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arn. Arb. 32 (1951) 14; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 115. Tropical Africa, India, Sri Lanka, S China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, MINDORO. Periodically flash-flooded streambeds, characteristically growing among rocks and trailing over gravel bars at low elevation. Photos
  3. Ehretia microphylla Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1792) 425; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 394; EPFP 3 (1923) 374; --Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1837) 391; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 17. --Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 30 (1940) 61; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 65; --Cordia retusa Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2 (1791) 42; --Type: Plukenet, Phytographia, t. 31, f. 1 (‘Habitat in India Orientali’). India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S China (Guangdong), Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Sumba, Flores), Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls. Dry regions, sunny forests. Often cultivated in gardens for ornamental purposes. Photos
  4. Ehretia philippinensis A.DC., Prodr. 9 (1845) 504; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 375; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 97; --Type: Cuming 471 (G, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON, PALAWAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation forests and secondary growth along rivers. Photos
  5. Ehretia resinosa Hance, J. Bot. 18 (1880) 299; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 103; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 98; --Type: from Taiwan. --Ehretia navesii S.Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 194; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 394; EPFP 3 (1923) 375; --Types: Vidal 471 (syn); Vidal 473 (syn). Taiwan, Philippines. N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Low elevation thickets and secondary forests. Photos

Heliotropium L. [sometimes Heliotropiaceae]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos
  1. Heliotropium biblianum Craven, Blumea 50 (2005) 379; --Tournefortia tetrandra Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 845; I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 16 (1935) 150; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 123. Nicobars, Sri Lanka, Anambas & Natuna Isls, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, New Guinea, Philippines. Montane forests and scrubs.
  2. Heliotropium bracteatum R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 493; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 377. Java to tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, MINDANAO: Davao. Open sites at low elevation. Unaccounted for in the FM revision.
  3. Heliotropium brevifolium Wall. Fl. Ind., ed. 1820 2 (1824) 2; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 102. --Heliotropium strigosum Willd., Sp. Pl. 1 (1797) 743; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 378. India to Peninsular Malaysia and tropical Australia. LUZON: Zambales. Open sandy places near the sea.  “The distribution is not yet clear, as H. brevifolium has not been recognized as a species separate from H. strigosum by many authors. It seems to be most common in the Philippines, where the greatest number of herbarium specimens comes from, but there also collections from N India. Whether there is really a gap between this area and the Philippines seems doubtful” (Riedl 1997). Photos
  4. Heliotropium curassavicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 130; --C.B.Rob., PJS 4 c (1909) 695; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 103. Native of the Americas from Patagonia to the US and the West Indies, Java (near Bogor), Philippines. Occasionally occurring as weed. Photos
  5. Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 125 (2003) 46. --Tournefortia argentea L.f., Suppl. (1781) 133; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 376; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 117; --Argusia argentea (L.f.) Heine, Fl. New Caled. & Depend. 7 (1976) 108; --Dayang Awa in Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 2 (1996) 95; --Messerschmiedia argentea (L.f.) I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 16 (1935) 164; J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 121; --Type: from Sri Lanka. E African coasts, across the Indian Ocean, Ryukyus, Taiwan, Hainan, Vietnam, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali, Lombok, Timor), Moluccas, New Guinea, N Australia to Polynesia, New Caledonia. BATANES and N LUZON to PALAWAN, MINDANAO, and the SULU ARCHIPELAGO. Along sandy seashores. Photos
  6. Heliotropium indicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 130; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 395; EPFP 3 (1923) 377; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 111; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 105. Probably a native of tropical America, now pantropical. In Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, Timor), Moluccas and New Guinea. A common weed in the settled areas throughout the Philippines at low elevation. Photos
  7. Heliotropium luzonicum (I.M. Johnst.) Craven, Blumea 50 (2005) 379; --Tournefortia luzonica I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 16 (1935) 156; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 118; --Type: Adduru 237 (A, K), Luzon.
  8. Heliotropium muelleri (I.M. Johnst.) Craven, Blumea 50 (2005) 380; --Tournefortia muelleri I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 16 (1935) 157; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13  (1997) 120; --Type: from Australia. N Australia, ?Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (?Bali, Sumba), New Guinea & Philippines. Along rivers and in tidal areas. 
  9. Heliotropium sarmentosum (Lam.) Craven, Blumea 50 (2005) 380; --Tournefortia sarmentosa Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1 (1797) 416; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 394; EPFP 3 (1923) 377; --I.M.Johnst., J. Arnold Arb. 16 (1935) 147; J. Arnold Arb. 32 (1951) 115; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 121. --Tournefortia horsfieldii Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2 (1858) 927; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 376. Australia, Taiwan, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Celebes, Lesser Sunda Islands (Lombok, Flores, Timor, Alor, Wetar), Moluccas, New Guinea. Photos

Messerschmidia Hebenstreit = Heliotropium

Rotula Lour. = Ehretia

Tournefortia L. = Heliotropium

Trichodesma R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos

  1. Trichodesma indicum (L.) Sm. in Rees, Cyclop. 36/1 (1817) no. 1; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 395; EPFP 3 (1923) 378; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 124; --Borago indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 137; --Type: Herb. Linn. J88/2 (LINN). Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Mascarene Isls, Philippines.
  2. Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 496; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 396; EPFP 3 (1923) 378; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 125; --Borago zeylanica Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 41; --Type: Burman f., Fl. Indica t. 14. f. 2. Africa. Comores, Madagascar, Mascarene Islands, India, Sri Lanka, Java, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores, Sumba,
    Timor, Alor), New Guinea. Photos

Trigonotis Steven

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 21 October 2017

Photos
  1. Trigonotis apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2562; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 379; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 130; --Type: Elmer 11500 (NY 2 sheets, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Photos
  2. Trigonotis philippinensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 228; EPFP 3 (1923) 380; --Riedl, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 137; --Type: Merrill 4700, Luzon. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  3. Trigonotis subrosulata Riedl., Blumea 38 (1994) 464; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 13 (1997) 139; --Type: BS 19575 McGregor (L, holo), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Mt Polis. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis). Known only from the type collection.

Literature

Backer, CA. 1951. Hydrophyllaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 4: 207-209

Craven, LA. 2005. Malesian and Australian Tournefortia transferred to Heliotropium and notes on delimitation of Boraginaceae. Blumea 50: 375-381.

Gottschling, M & HH Hilger. 2004. The systematic position of Ehretia cortesia nom. nov. (≡ Cortesia cuneifolia: Ehretiaceae, Boraginales) inferred from molecular and morphological Data. Taxon 53: 919-923.

Johnston, IM. 1951. Studies in the Boraginaceae. Journal of Arnold Arboretum 32: 1-26; 99-122.

Luebert, F, G Brokamp, J Wen, M Weigend & HH Hilger. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships and morphological diversity in Neotropical Heliotropium (Heliotropiaceae). Taxon 60: 663-680.

Riedl, H. 1997. Boraginaceae. Flora Malesiana series 1, 13: 43-144


Acknowledgements

Gina S. Mapua, Ernest Kurt Tan and Leonardo Cristobal Udasco kindly provided a number of photographs found on this webpage.


Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 21 October 2017