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Asteraceae

= Compositae

Acanthospermum Schrank

No Photos
  1. Acanthospermum hispidum DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 522; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 254. Native to South America. Introduced in Africa, Madagascar, India, Lesser Sunda Isls, Philippines, New Guinea, N Australia.

Acmella Rich. ex Pers.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 June 2013

Photos
  1. Acmella grandiflora (Turcz.) RK Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8 (1985) 75; --Spilanthes grandiflora Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 241 (1851) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 612; --Koster & Philipson, Blumea 6 (1950) 353. --Spilanthes ovata Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 246; EPFP 3 (1923) 612. Philippines, Tropical Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Open grassy slopes in the pine forests, altitude 1200-1950m. (As Spilanthes grandiflora & S. ovata, fide Merr., 1923). Photos
  2. Acmella paniculata (Wall. ex DC) RK Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 9 (1985) 67; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 814, pl. 376, photo 406. --Spilanthes iabadicensis AH Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sc. 42 (1907) 542; --Koster & Philipson, Blumea 6 (1950) 354. --Spilanthes acmella auctt., --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 612, non (L.) Murr. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Taiwan, across Malesia, also reprted from South America. LUZON: Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, BALABAC. Low and medium altitudes, open waste places, old clearings, etc. Photos
  3. Acmella uliginosa Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. [F. Cuvier] 24 (1822) 331. Naturalized in Hong Kong and Taiwan [native throughout the tropics in Africa, America, and Asia; naturalized in the Pacific islands] (Flora of China Vol. 20-21 Page 862). Photos

Adenostemma J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Photos
  1. Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 304; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 596; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 470; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 816, pl. 377; photo 407. Photos
    • var. lavenia. India, Sri Lanka, S China, Taiwan, SE Asia. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon, CULION, CATANDUANES, PANAY, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO. Sea-level to 1800m, in open wet places along streams, forests, and thickets.
    • var. parviflorum (Hook.) Hochr., Candollea 5 (1934) 298. Adenostemma parviflorum (Blume) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 111; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 476. Hawaiian Isls, Samoa Isls, Society Isls, New Caledonia, C & S China, Taiwan, Thailand, across Malesia.

Ageratina Spach

Photos
  1. Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) R King & H Robinson, Phytologia 19 (1970) 211; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 378; --Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., Syst. 3 (1826) 420; -- Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 502. Native of Mexico, California and the West Indies, now adventive in all tropical regions of the world. Photos

Ageratum L.

Photos
  1. Ageratum conyzoides L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 839; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 484; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 820, pl. 379. Native of the Neotropics, now widely naturalized in all warm regions of the world. Throughout the Philippines. A common weed in open waste places, 0-2000m. Photos
  2. Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Dict. ed. 8, no. 2 (1768); --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 490. Native of the Neotropics, now widely distributed in all warm regions of the world.

Ainsliaea DC.

Photos
  1. Ainsliaea latifolia (D Don) Sch.-Bip., Jahresber. Pollichia 18-19 (1861) 190. subsp. henryi (Diels) H Koyama, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 32 (1981) 60; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 822. Ainsliaea reflexa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 242; EPFP 3 (1923) 620. Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, S China, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Laguna-Quezon (Mt Banahaw), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). Mossy forests, altitude 2000-2400m. Photos

Anaphalis DC.

Photos
  1. Anaphalis morrisonicola Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 8 (1919) 56; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 828, photo 410. --Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. subsp. morrisonicola (Hayata) Kitam., Fauna Fl. Nepal Himalaya (1955) 244. --Anaphalis contorta auct. non (Don) Hook.f. (1881); --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608. Himalayas, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Grassy slopes in thin pine forests, altitude 1500-2200m. Photos

Anisopappus Hook. & Arn.

No Photos
  1. Anisopappus chinensis (L.) Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechy Voy (1836) 196; --Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 125; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609. Chrysogonum philippinense Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 161; --Type: Merrill 514 (NY, iso). Culion: Halsey Harbor. Dry grassy valley, Dec 1902. Myanmar, S China, W-C Philippines. CULION. Low altitudes, in dry open places. 

Artemisia L.

Photos
  1. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pampanini, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s. 36 (1930) 383; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53. Artemisia vulgaris auctt. Philip. non L.; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 625; ibid., ed. 2 (1845) 435; ibid., ed. 3, 3 (1879) 14, t. 329; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 119; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 141; -- Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 441; Fl. Manila (1912) 472; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 53, non L. Pantropic. Throughout the Philippines, but certainly an introduced species. In and about towns at low and medium altitudes. Often planted. Naturalized. Photos
  2. Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 309; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 616; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 837, pl. 388, photo 414. China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet. Dry open sites in the montane zone, altitude 1200-1600m.
  3. Artemisia japonica Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 310; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 616; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 839, photo 415. Afghanistan, India, NE and S China, Taiwan, Lanyu, Korea, Japan, Thailand, N Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Dry slopes, low altitudes.

Aster L.

Photos
  1. Aster philippinensis Moore, J. Bot. 43 (1905) 138; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Type: Merrill 4726. Aster luzonensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 131; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600, syn. nov; --Type: Elmer 6251 LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane thickets and forests, altitude 1400-2400m. Photos
  2. Aster trinervius Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 61, nomen nudum; Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3 (1832) 433; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 394; EPFP 3 (1923) 600. India to China, Taiwan, Japan, and N Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. On slopes in pine forests, altitude c. 1400m.

Ayapana Spach

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  1. Ayapana triplinervis (Vahl) R King & H Robinson, Phytologia 20: 212. (1970) -- Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Symb. 3 (1794) 97; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 376; EPFP 3 (1923) 598; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 493. Tropical America (Mexico, West Indies, Trinidad, Guyana, Brazil), Mauritius, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON. According to Merrill, introduced here from Mexico and occasionally planted for medicinal purposes.

Bidens L.

Photos
  1. Bidens bipinnata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 832; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 868, photo 422. Probably native of E United States and E Asia, naturalized in South America, Australia, S Asia and Europe. LUZON: Benguet. Dry open slopes, altitude c. 1300m. Photos (non-Philippine).
  2. Bidens biternatus (Lour.) Merr. & Scherff in Scherff, Bot. Gaz. 88 (1929) 293; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 261; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869. Bidens leucorrhiza (Lour.) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 605; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613. Cape Verde, Madeira, Africa, Madagascar, Reunion, France (introduced), Arabia, Afghanistan, India, Thailand, Indochina, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, New Guinea, Australia, Polynesia. BATANES and N LUZON to PALAWAN and MINDANAO. Open waste places, thickets, etc., from sea-level to 2300m.
  3. Bidens pilosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 832; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 614 ‘pilosa’; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869. Photos (non-Philippine).
    • var. pilosa Tropical and subtropical regions of the world. BABUYAN ISLS and LUZON to MINDANAO. Waste places, chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 2200m.
    • var. minor (Blume) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80 (1925) 387; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 869; --Bidens sundaicus Blume var. minor Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 914. Most tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
    • var. radiata Sch.-Bip. in Webb & Berthel., Hist. Canar. 3 (1842-50) 242; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 870, pl. 404. Probably native of the United States, now naturalized and common weed in North and South America, N Africa, and S Asia.
  4. Bidens tripartitus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 831; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 614 ‘tripartita’; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 261. Eurasia, N Africa and Australia.
    • var. repens (G Don) Scherff, Bot. Gaz. 81 (1926) 45. Eurasia, N Africa and Australia. (distribution of the species).

Blumea DC.

Photos

  1. Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 601; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 237; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 875, pl. 407, photo 424. Blumea appendiculata (Blume) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601. India, Nicobars, Andamans, Himalayas, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Malesia: Sumatra to Moluccas, Philippines: LUZON, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, BALABAC, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, SIARGAO, MINDANAO, BASILAN, TAWI-TAWI. Low and medium altitudes, usually common in open grasslands and thickets. Photos
  2. Blumea bicolor Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 356; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 231; --Type: Merrill 8080 (not seen). Mindanao: Zamboanga Sumatra, New Guinea and the Philippines: LUZON, PANAY, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Moist localities in dense forests, 900-1100m.
  3. Blumea clarkei Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 267; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 252. Blumea lessingii Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 603. India, Sikkim, Myanmar, S China, Hainan, Thailand, Indochina, Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi and the Philippines: LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO. Along roadsides, hill slopes and clearings, up to 1000m.
  4. Blumea fistulosa (Roxb.) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 46 (1877) 187; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 256. Blumea glomerata DC in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 15; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 602. India, Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S China, Hainan. Accredited to the Philippines by Merrill as B. glomerata: LUZON: Cagayan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Batangas, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO. No citation of occurrence in the Philippines by Randeria.
  5. Blumea hieracifolia (Don) DC, in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 15; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 246; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 878, pl. 410, photo 427. Blumea sericans JD Hook., Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1881) 262; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 604. var. hieraciifolia India, Bangladesh, Himalayas, Myanmar, Indochina, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Ryukyus, Malesia: Sumatra to New Guinea and the Philippines: LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Open grasslands, chiefly at medium altitudes. Photos
    var. macrostachya (DC) Hook.f, Fl. Brit. Ind. 3 (1882) 263; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 248. India, Nepal, Myanmar, Indochina, S China, Hainan, Malesia: Lesser Sunda Isls., Philippines: LUZON.
  6. Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC in Wight, Contr. Bot. Ind. (1834) 14, Prodr. 5 (1836) 436; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 878, pl. 411, photo 428. Cape Verde Isls, Africa, SE Asia from India to Ryukyus and New Guinea to N Australia and Guam. BATAN, CAMIGUIN, LUZON, ALABAT, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, PANAY, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Dry fields and grasslands, along roadsides, forest edges, at low and medium altitudes. Photos
  7. Blumea laciniata (Roxb.) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 436; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 470; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 258; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 878, pl. 412. India to New Guinea, Solomon Isls and Hawaii. LUZON, CULION, BALABAC, SAMAR, SIARGAO, MINDANAO. Old clearings, along roadsides and in waste places up to c. 1200m. Photos
  8. Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce, Rept. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isls. 4 (1917) 609; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 218; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 884, pl. 413.
    • var. lanceolaria India to Java, S China, Ryukyus, Taiwan, N Philippines. BATAN, based on Hatusima 28787. Lowland thickets.
    • var. spectabilis (DC) Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 220. Blumea spectabilis DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 446; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 604. India, Sri Lanka, S Vietnam, Taiwan and the Philippines: LUZON, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Along streams in forests, and also in open places at low and medium altitudes to 1200m.
  9. Blumea manillensis (Less.) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 435; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 603. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Rizal, Cavite, Batangas. Along streams in ravines at low altitudes.
  10. Blumea mollis (D Don) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 395; Fl. Manila (1912) 603; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 261; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 864, pl. 415, photo 429. Africa, Madagascar, Indian Ocean Isls to S and SE Asia, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Philippines, Java, Australia to New Caledonia. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Bulacan, Rizal, MINDORO. Dry places in open grasslands, roadsides, etc. up to 1500m.
  11. Blumea ramosii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 604; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 246. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales. Damp ravines, along trail margins and hillside thickets, 1100-1600m. Fl. Mar.-May.
  12. Blumea riparia (Blume) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 444; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 213. Blumea pubigera (L.) Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 604.
    • var. riparia forma riparia India, Himalayas, Myanmar, Indochina, S China, Taiwan, Malesia: Sumatra to New Guinea and Solomon Isls. LUZON: Mountain Province, Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, PALAWAN, BALABAC, CATANDUANES, PANAY, BOHOL, LEYTE, SAMAR, SIARGAO, MINDANAO, BASILAN, JOLO, TAWI-TAWI. Thickets, grassy plains, clearings, stream and riverbanks or rambling on the undergrowth in rainforests, 0-1500m.
    • var. riparia forma angustifolia Koster, Blumea 4 (1941) 490. Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and the Philippines: NEGROS, MINDANAO, BASILAN.
  13. Blumea saxatilis Zoll. & Mor., Nat. en Geneesk. Arch. N. I. 2 (1845) 243; Blumea tenera Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 250; EPFP 3 (1923) 605. N Australia, Indochina, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines, Java, Timor, Wetar, New Guinea. LUZON: Zambales, Rizal, CULION, PALAWAN, MANAMOC, PANAY. Among rocks or in sunny grasslands or clearings up to alt. 700m.
  14. Blumea stenophylla Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 495; --Mattfeld, Bot. Jahrb. 62 (1929) 417 New Guinea and the Philippines: BOHOL: Valencia, along stream in damp forest, 300m.
  15. Blumea sylvatica (Blume) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 447; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 605; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 223. var. sylvatica Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Java, Sumbawa, Ternate, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, PALAWAN. Forest edges, along streams and rivers.
  16. Blumea vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 105; EPFP 3 (1923) 605; Mattfeld, Bot. Jahrb. (1929) 420; --Randeria, Blumea 10 (1960) 216. Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province. On slopes, c. 1300m.
  17. Blumea virens (Wall.) DC in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 14; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 605. NE and S India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Andaman Isls, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, SW China (Yunnan), Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, La Union, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Batangas, CULION, GUIMARAS. Thickets and open forests along small streams at low and medium altitude.

Doubtful species: 

  1. Blumea confertiflora Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 254; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Type: FB 11027 (not seen). Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Mar 1908. MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (unspecified type locality and Mt Sablayan). Exposed peaks and ridges, altitude c. 970m.
  2. Blumea incisa (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 395; EPFP 3 (1923) 602; --Pluchea incisa Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 358; --Type: Elmer 8936 (not seen). Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas (near Baguio), altitude c. 2200m, Mar 1907. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forests, altitude 2000-2200m.
  3. Blumea longipes Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 255; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; --Type: MS Clemens 893 (not seen). Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Jan 1907 MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Open grasslands or thickets about Lake Lanao, c. 650m.
  4. Blumea mindanaensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 256; EPFP 3 (1923) 603; --Type: MS Clemens 736 (not seen). Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Nov 1906. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Open grasslands or thickets about Lake Lanao, c. 650m.

Carpesium L.

No Photos
  1. Carpesium cernuum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 859; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 397; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-3;--Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 251; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 893, pl. 419. S Europe through S Asia to Japan, N Sumatra, Java (Mt Tengger), Borneo (Sabah, Mt Kinabalu), N Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open sites and light forest in the montane zone, altitude 1800-2400m.

Centipeda Lour.

No Photos
  1. Centipeda minima (L.) A Br. & Aschers., Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. (1867) App. 6; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 615; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 898, pl. 423. Madagascar, S, SE and E Asia, Malesia, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa. LUZON: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, MINDANAO: Lanao. Low and medium altitudes, open waste places, rice paddies, etc.

Centratherum Cass.

No Photos
  1. Centratherum fruticosum Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 121; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: Cuming 1556 (not seen). BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal. Forest edges, thickets and clearings, chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 2000m.

Chromolaena DC.

Photos

  1. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R King & H Robinson, Phytologia 20 (1970) 204; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 901, pl. 424; --Eupatorium odoratum L., Syst. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 1205. Native of the Neotropics, escaped and naturalized in Asia. Photos

Chrysanthemum L. =Dendranthema; Glebionis

Cirsium Mill.

Photos

  1. Cirsium luzoniense Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 399; EPFP 3 (1923) 620; --Type: RS Williams 1981 (NY 3 sheets, US, iso). Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, 30 Nov 1904. LUZON: Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Laguna-Quezon (Mt Banahaw). High montane exposed sites, altitude 1800-2500m. Photos

Conyza L.

Photos

  1. Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70 (1943) 632. Not native. Photos
  2. Conyza japonica (Thunb.) Less., Syn. Comp. (1832) 204; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 918. Afghanistan, India (Himalayas, Khasya Mtns) China, Japan, Taiwan, N Vietnam, Thailand, across Malesia to New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Montane sites at 1200-2400m, in open sunny places, grasslands, along foot trails, pine forest, etc. 
  3. Conyza leucantha (D Don) Ludlow & Raven, Kew Bull. 17 (1963) 71; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 918. Conyza viscidula Wall., Cat. (1831) No. 3006, nom. nud.; --DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 383; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 601. India, Thailand, S China, Taiwán, Ryukyus, Java, Philippines, Australia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bulacan, Rizal, PANAY. Lowlands to 1800m altitude, in old clearings, thickets and foot trail in open forests. 
  4. Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) Walker, J. Jap. Bot. 46 (1971) 72; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 919; --Erigeron sumatrensis Retz., Obs. 5 (1789) 28; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600. Erigeron linifolius Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1804) 1955; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474. Native of South America, early established in Sumatra. Now pantropic in distribution. Throughout the Philippines, lowlands to c. 2000m, in open waste places, old clearings, etc. Often abundant. Photos

Cosmos Cav.

Photos (non-Philippines)

  1. Cosmos caudatus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (1820) 240; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 478; EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Native of tropical America (Mexico), now pantropical in distribution. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, a common weed in open waste places, fallow lands, etc. 
  2. Cosmos suphureus Cav., Icon. 1 (1791) 56, t. 79; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Native of Mexico. Throughout the Philippines although less common than the preceding species. Lowlands and medium altitudes, in open grasslands, thicket edges, etc.

Crassocephalum Moench

Photos
  1. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S Moore, J. Bot. 50 London (1912) 211; --Mendoza (or Quisumbing?), PJS xxx; --Koster, Blumea 26 (1980) 237; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 922, pl. 434. Native of tropical Africa, widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. Throughout the Philippines, generally at low to medium altitudes. Common roadside weed, in waste places, abandoned cultivation, forest clearings, etc. Photos

Crepidiastrum Nakai (~ Ixeris Cassini)

No Photos
  1. Crepidiastrum lanceolatum (Houtt.) Nakai, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 34 (1920) 150; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 924, pl. 435, Photo 440. Japan to S Korea, China, Taiwan and N Philippines. BATAN. On littoral rocky cliff, locally frequent. Based on Hatusima 28681.

Crossostephium Less.

Photos
  1. Crossostephium chinense (L.) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 20 (1906) 33; --Merr., PJS 15 (1919) 260; EPFP 3 (1923) 616; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 927, pl. 437, photo 442; -- Artemisia chinense L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. Crossostephium artemisioides Less. ex Cham. & Schlecht., Linnaea 6 (1831) 220; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471. Ryukyus, S China, Taiwan, Lanyu, N Philippines. BATANES: ITBAYAT, based on Lopez s.n. (cited by Merr., 1923). Open slopes near the sea. In the Philippines this is otherwise grown in flowerpots only. Photos

Cyanthilium Blume

Photos
  1. Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H Robinson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103 (1990) 252; --Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less., Linnaea 4 (1829) 291; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 407, as var. typica; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1086, Plate 518; Photo 494. Vernonia cinerea var. parviflora (Blume) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 24; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 412. Pantropical. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, a common weed in settlements, along roadsides, cultivated lands, open wastelands, etc. Photos
  2. Cyanthillium patulum (Aiton) H Robinson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103 (1990) 252; --Vernonia patula (Dryand.) Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 439; Fl. Manila (1912) 466; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 430 ‘var. typica’; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1091, Plate 521; Photo 497.--Conyza patula Dryand., Hort. Kew (W Aiton) 3 (1789) 184. Vernonia patula var. multiflora Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 435. Widespread in tropical Asia: Taiwan, Philippines, Java, Tanimbar Isls, New Guinea. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, a common weed in settlements, along roadsides, cultivated lands, open wastelands, etc. Photos

Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul.

No Photos
  1. Dendranthema grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitam., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 29 (1978) 165. Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat., J. Hist. Nat. 2 (1792) 240; --L.H. Bailey, Gent. Herb. 1 (1923) 131; --Merr., EPFP 4 (1925) 247. Chrysanthemum sinense Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1825) 145; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 615. Native of China. Cultivated for ornamental purposes in the Philippines. 
  2. Dendranthema indica (L.) Des Moul., Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 10 (1855) 561; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 929; --Chrysanthemum indicum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 889; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 615. India, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Russia. Widely cultivated for ornamental and medicinal purposes in the Philippines. Apparently established in some high elevation areas like the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon. 

Dichrocephala L’Hér. ex DC.

Photos
  1. Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia (Blume) DC, in Guill., Arch. Bot. 2 (1833) 518; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 381; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 11-2. Tropical Africa, Socotra, India, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok; Timor), Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Altitude 1800-2200m. In pine forests, grassy slopes, along trails and roadsides. 
  2. Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 333; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 933, Pl. 440, Photo 444. Dichrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schlecht., Linnaea 25 (1852) 209; --Koster, Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 594. Dichrocephala latifolia (Lam.) DC in in Guill., Arch. Bot. 2 (1833) 518; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599. Tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, MINDORO, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Lanao. Chiefly at and above 900m, ascending to 2200m, along mountain trails, old clearings and open sites. 

Eclipta L.

Photos
  1. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., Mantissa (1771) 286; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 273; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 935; --Verbesina prostrata L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 902. Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., Pl. Jav. Rar. (1881) 528; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 610. Warmer regions of the world. Throughout the Philippines in the lowlands generally, ascending to 1600m. Common in water-logged or semi-aquatic habitats such as edges of muddy pools, canals, and rice paddies. Photos 
  2. Eclipta zippeliana Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 914; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --Pancho & Obien, Manual Weeds Tobacco Faros Philip. (1983) 177, Fig. 110; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 937. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. var. zippeliana (Blume) J Koster, in Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Jav. 2 (1965) 402. Malesia, introduced in Taiwan via merchant ships from SE Asia. LUZON: Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga.

Elephantopus L.

Photos
  1. Elephantopus scaber L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 814; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 468; EPFP 3 (1923) 596; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 457 ‘var. typicus’; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 938.
    • var. scaber Pantropical and subtropical. Certainly a naturalized weed in the Philippines, common in lowland grasslands and waste places. Photos
    • var. sinuatus Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 496; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 461. Distribution.
  2. Elephantopus tomentosus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 814; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 464. Elephantopus mollis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (1820) 26; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 468; PFP 3 (1923) 595; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 464 (nec syn. E. tomentosi L., fide Philipson, J. Bot. (1939) 14); --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 938, Plate 442, Photo 445. Native of tropical America, now pantropical in distribution. Throughout the Philippines from the lowlands to 2000m. A common weed in grasslands and other exposed sites. Distribution. Photos

Emilia Cass.

Photos

  1. Emilia pinnatifida Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 243; EPFP 3 (1923) 619. –Syntypes: Merrill 4664 (US). Luzon: Benguet prov., Buguias, Oct-Nov 1905; --Merrill 4265 (US). Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Oct-Nov 1905. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Grassy understorey of pine forests, altitude 1300-2000m.
  2. Emilia prenanthoidea DC, Prodr. 6 (1837) 303; --Koster, Blumea 26 (1980) 239. forma prenanthoidea India, China, Sumatra, Philippines, New Guinea. Philippine.
  3. Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC, Prodr. 6 (1837) 302; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 467; EPFP 3 (1923) 620; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 940, Plate 443, Photo 446; --Cacalia sonchifolia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 835.
    • var. sonchifolia Pantropic weed of Old World origin (E Asia, Malesia to E Polynesia). Throughout the Philippines, chieflly at low to medium altitudes, ascending to c. 1500m. Common in about towns and settlements, along open grassy sites, trails, rice paddy fallows, lawns, etc.
    • var. javanica (N Burm.) Mattfeld, Bot. Jahrb. 62 (1929) 445; Nova Guinea 14, Bot. (1928) 529; --Koster, Blumea 26 (1980) 239; --Emilia javanica (N Burm.) C Robinson., PJS 3 (1908) Bot. 217; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; --Hieracium javanicum N Burm., Fl. Ind. (1768) 174, t. 57, Fig. 1. –Type from Java. Emilia marivelensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 362; --Type: Merrill 3282 (US, iso?). Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Oct 1903. India to Malesia. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Bataan, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Misamis Occidental, Cotabato. Chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 2000m, in exposed sites. Photos

Enydra Lour.

No Photos
  1. Enydra fluctuans Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 511; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 610. Tropical Africa and Asia to Malaya. Reportedly an introduced plant in the Philippines (possibly no longer persisting?). LUZON: Rizal, based on Merrill 11204. Occasional along the banks of small streams in and about Manila. 

Epaltes Cass.

No Photos
  1. Epaltes australis Less., Linnaea 5 (1831) 148, 206; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 942, Plate 444. India, S China, Taiwan, across Malesia to Australia. LUZON: Rizal. Lowlands, on fallow rice paddies.

Erechtites Raf.

Photos
  1. Erechtites valerianifolius (Wolf ex Reichb.) DC, Prodr. 6 (1837) 295; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; -- Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 944, Photo 447; --Senecio valerianifolia Wolf ex Reichb., Icon. Bot. Exot. 1 (1827) 59. Native of South America. LUZON: Sotrsogon, CATANDUANES, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO, BALUT, BUCAS GRANDE. Old clearings at low and medium altitudes, often abundant. Photos

Erigeron L. =Conyza

Ethulia L.

No Photos
  1. Ethulia conyzoides L.f. ex L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1763) 1171; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 591; --Koster, Nova Guinea, Botany 24 (1966) 499. Ethulia megacephala Schulz-Bip. in Zoll. Syst. Verz. Ind. Arch. (1854) 119, nomen; --Miq., Pl. Jungh. (1854) 495 (descriptio); --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 373. Africa (Egypt, Ethiopia, Zanzibar, Ivory Coast), Madagascar, India, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malesia: New Guinea and the Philippines: LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane thickets in stream depressions, also in the mossy forests, altitude 1300-2300m.

Eupatorium L.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 26 January 2013

Photos

  1. Eupatorium beguetense C.B.Rob., Philipp. J. Sci., C 3 (1908) 217; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393. Endemic to Philippines.
  2. Eupatorium camiguinense Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --Type: BS 14688 Ramos (not seen), Camiguin: Camiguin prov., Mt Mahinog, 11 Apr 1912. --Eupatorium catense Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2584; --Type: Elmer 11506 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘scandent among small trees along the Cati Creek above the falls at 5750ft’, Aug 1909. CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Davao. Medium altitude thickets and forests, ascending to 1700m. Endemic to Philippines.
  3. Eupatorium cannabinum L. Photos
    • ssp. asiaticum Kitam., Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 19 (1961) 16; ibid. 32 (1981) 139. --Eupatorium formosanum Hayata var. quasitripartitum (Hayata) Kitamura, Acta Phytotax. et Geobot. 1 (1932) 284; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 53. --Eupatorium japonicum sensu Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 597, non Thunb. --Eupatorium reevesii sensu Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597, non Wall. Himalayas, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, N Philippines: BATAN, SABTAN, LUZON: Tayabas (E coast). Lowland thickets, hill grasslands, boulders on the seashore.
  4. Eupatorium leonardii Ferreras & E.E.Lamont, Brittonia 64 (2012) 368; --Type: Ferreras 426 (holo: PNH; iso: US, NY, UC, PUH), Philippines, Luzon, Aurora, Central Sierra Madre Mountains, Mt. Mingan. LUZON: Aurora. Photos
  5. Eupatorium lindleyanum DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 180; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 960, Plate 456. China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, N Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya. Low and medium altitudes in open damp places.
  6. Eupatorium nodiflorum Wall., Cat. (1828) 3166 comp. 276; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 494. Bangladesh, Assam, Himalayas, Thailand, N & C Vietnam, China, the Philippines, Lombok. LUZON: distribution.
  7. Eupatorium sambucifolium Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. i. (1906) 102.
  8. Eupatorium toppingianum Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 101; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 597; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 500. LUZON: Abra, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales, Laguna, NEGROS. Stream depression thickets, mossy forest clearings, mountain meadows, 1300-2400m. Photos

Fenixia Merr.

No Photos
  1. Fenixia pauciflora Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 119, t. 3; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --Type: BS 26036 Fenix (L, NY, US, iso). Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Gaboc, vicinity of Tanculan, “damp rocky hillsides associated especially with Begonia”, 13 Jul 1916. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Damp rocky slopes at medium altitudes. 

Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav.

Photos
  1. Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Icon. Descr. Pl. 3 (1795) 41, t. 281;--Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 368; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 267; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 967. Native of tropical America now widely distributed in the temperate, subtemperate and tropical regions of the world. LUZON: Benguet and Mountain Province, altitude 1200-2400m. Very common weed in the temperate vegetable areas. Photos

Glebionis Cass.

Photos
  1. Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach -- Hist. Nat. Vég. (Spach) 10: 181. 1841; --Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 890; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 615. Europe to SE Asia. Cultivated in the Philippines. Photos

Glossocardia Cass.

Photos
  1. Glossocardia bidens (Retz.) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 468; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 971, Plate 461, Photo 455; --Zinnia bidens Retz., Obs. Bot. 5 (1788) 28. Glossogyne tenuifolia Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 51 (1827) 475; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613 (excl. syn. Bidens tridentata & Glossogyne tridentata); --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 256. S Asia, Taiwan, Australia, New Caledonia. Philippine distribution. Photos
  2. Glossocardia tridentata (Turcz.) Veldk., Blumea 35 (1991) 478; --Guerreroia tridentata (Turcz.) Steen., Blumea 30 (1985) 429; --Bidens tridentata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24 (1851) 183; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 613, pro syn. Glossogyne tenuifolia. Guerreroia monocephala Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 118, t.2; EPFP 3 (1923) 613. Distribution. Photos

Glossogyne Cass. =Glossocardia

Gnaphalium L.

Photos

  1. Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC, Prodr. 6 (1838) 274; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 973, Plate 462, Photo 456. Anaphalis adnata (Wall.) DC, Prodr. 6 (1837) 274; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608. N India, Myanmar, Indochina, S China, Taiwan, N Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Open slopes in pine forests, altitude 1300-2000m.
  2. Gnaphalium hypoleucum DC in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 21; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 975, Photo 457. var. hypoleucum S & SE Asia, China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, N Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Altitude 1200-2200m, in open vegetation associated with pine forests, frequently on steep slopes.
  3. Gnaphalium involucratum Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. (1786) 55. var. simplex DC, Prodr. 6 (1838) 236; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 976, Photo 459. Taiwan, Philippines, Java, Australia, New Zealand. Philippine distribution?
  4. Gnaphalium japonicum Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 311; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 608; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 394; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-5;--Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 977, Plate 463. E China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, C Sumatra (Mt Kerinci), Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok; Timor), N Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales, Quezon. Montane meadows and open slopes, altitude 1500-2400m. 
  5. Gnaphalium luteoalbum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 851; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 394; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 10-7 & 8;--Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 977. ssp. luteoalbum Europe and Africa to India, China, Taiwan and Japan towards Australia, in Malesia scattered through Philippines and Indonesia. LUZON: Pangasinan, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Camarines. Chiefly at médium altitudes, ascending to 2400m, along trails, sunny places, talus slopes, etc. Photos

Grangea Adans.

No Photos
  1. Grangea maderaspatana (L.) Poiret in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 2 (1812) 825; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 599; --Soejima & CI Peng in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 982, Plate 465, Photo 460; --Artemisia maderaspatana L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 849. Africa, India, Indochina, Taiwan, Java, Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal. An occasional weed in open waste places in and about towns, certainly introduced. 

Guerreroia Merr. = Glossocardia tridentata

Gynura Cass.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 28 May 2013

Photos

  1. Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC., Prodr. (DC.) 6 (1838) 300; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 425; -- Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 12-3. Sri Lanka, India, China, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi. Not native to Philippines. Photos (non-Philippine)
  2. Gynura elliptica Y.Yabe & Hayata ex Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Tokyo 18, no. 8 (1904) 25, t. 2; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 984, Plate 467, Photo 462; --Type from Taiwan. Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, SABTAN. Old fields, low altitudes.
  3. Gynura japonica (Thunb.) Juel., Acta Horti Berg. 1 (1891) 86; --Senecio japonicus Thunb. in Murray, Syst.Veg. (1784) 315; --Type from Japan. --Gynura segetum Lour. ex Merr., Philip. J. Sci. 15 (1919) 260; --Type from China. China, Japan, Taiwan, Nepal, Philippines.
  4. Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Cacalia procumbens Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 485. --Cacalia sarracenia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 618, non L. --Gynura affinis Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 24, 1 (1851) 201; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 120; --Type: Cumming 926 (K, holo, iso), Luzon, Albay. --Gynura angulosa Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 119, non DC. --Gynura agusanensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2585; --Type: Elmer 13864 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta (=Mt Hilong-hilong), Sept 1912. --Gynura clementis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 244; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 145; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: Clemens 49 (PNH, holo), Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithy. --Gynura latifolia (Moore) Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 145; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Crassocephalum latifolium Moore, J. Bot. 43 (1905) 138; --Type: Whitehead s.n. (BM, holo), Negros. --Gynura piperi Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 355; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: Piper 384 (K. holo), Siquijor. --Gynura sarmentosa (Blume) DC, Prodr. 6 (1837) 298; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 120; --Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 163; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 146; --Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381. --Gynura scabra Turcz., loc. cit; --Fern.-Villar, loc. cit.; --Type: Cumming 1638 (K, holo), Panay. --Senecio cacaliaster Blanco, ibid., ed. 2 (1845) 441; ibid. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 24, non Lam. --Senecio mindorensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 155; --Type: Elmer 5936 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, Mar 1904. Tropical west Africa, India, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea. N LUZON (Cagayan) to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Photos 
  5. Gynura rubiginosa (Elmer) J.R.Drummond ex Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Senecio rubiginosus Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 154; --Type: Elmer 6246 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, May 1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Damp thickets, altitude 1600-2000m.
  6. Gynura vidaliana Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 144; J.R.Drummond ex Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 398; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Type: Merrill 3937 (NY, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Arayat, Oct 1904. Photos
    • var. vidaliana. --Gynura purpurascens Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 164, non DC. --Gynura macgregorii Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 398; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: McGregor PNH 8381 (K, lecto). LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya. Mossy forests, altitude 2000-2500m. --Gynura acuminatissima Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 121; EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: BS 26556 Ramos & Edaño (K, holo; L, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Aurora prov., Mt Dingalan, Aug-Sept 1916; --Gynura subglabra Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 120; EPFP 3 (1923) 618; --Type: BS 27023 Ramos (K, holo; NY, US, iso), Luzon: Abra prov., Mt Posuey, Feb 1917. Endemic to Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Kalinga, Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales, Pampanga (Mt Arayat), Aurora (Mt Dingalan), Batangas, PALAWAN. Mossy forest, damp thickets and forests, altitude 750-2500m.
    • var. apoensis (Elmer) FG Davies, Kew Bull. 35 (1981) 732; --Gynura apoensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2587; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 617; --Type: Elmer 11584 (L, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, Aug 1909. Endemic to Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao. Altitude c. 1800m, along streams. LUZON, MINDANAO, PALAWAN.

Helianthus L.

Photos
  1. Helianthus annuus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 904; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 476; EPFP 3 (1923) 612. Native of tropical America, now planted in all warm countries. Cultivated here and there for ornamental purposes but nowhere established. Sunflower. Photos (non-Philippine)

Helichrysum Mill.

Photos

  1. Helichrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Andrews, Bot. Repos. 6 (1805) sub t. 428; --

Ixeridium (A.Gray) Tzvelev

Photos
  1. Ixeridium laevigatum (Blume) JH Pak & Kawano, Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ., Ser. Biol. 15 (1992) 45; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 993, pl. 471, photo 465; --Lactuca laevigata (Blume) DC, Prodr. 7 (1838) 140; Koster, Blumea 23 (1976) 169; --Ixeris laevigata (Blume) Yamamoto, J. Soc. Trop. Agric. Taiwan 8 (1936) 353; --Prenanthes laevigata Blume, Bijdr. 2 (1826) 836. Lactuca laevigata (Blume) DC var. exciso-dentata Koster, Blumea 23 (1976) 174. Lactuca dentata (Thunb.) C Robinson, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 218; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621, pro parte; --Ixeris laevigata (Blume) Schultz-Bip. var. oldhami (Maxim.) Kitam., Mem. Coll. Sci. Univ. Kyoto, ser. B, 281, Art. 14 (1956) (Compos. Jap. 5) 111; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 54. Indochina, S China, Taiwan, Japan, across Malesia. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Zambales, Pampanga, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Chielfly along shaded streams at medium altitudes, ascending to 2000m. (as Lactuca dentata). Photos

Lactuca L.

Photos

  1. Lactuca indica L. -- Mant. Pl. Altera 278. (Oct. 1771).  Photos
  2. Lactuca integra Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 475; EPFP 3 (1923) 622; --Type: BS 26586 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso). Luzon: Aurora prov., Dingalan, on rocks along the seashore, 24 Aug 1916. Accoding to Merrill (1922), most closely allied to Lactuca dentata (Thunb.) C Robinson [=Ixeridium laevigatum].
  3. Lactuca sativa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 795; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 622. Cultivated for food, but nowhere established. Lettuce.

Lagenophora Cass.

 Photos (non-Philippine)

  1. Lagenophora stipitata (Labill.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isl. (1917) 630; --Cabrera, Blumea 14 (1966) 301, Fig. 8A-F. Lagenophora billardieri Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 25 (1826) 111; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 599. var. stipitata Papua, SE Australia, Tasmania. Introduced?

Laggera Sch.-Bip.

Photos
  1. Laggera alata (D Don) Schulz-Bip. ex Oliver, Trans. Linn. Soc. 39 (1873) 94; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 390; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 11-6; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1006, Plate 478, Photo 469; --Erigeron alatum D Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 171. South and tropical Africa and the Comoros to SE Asia, N Sumatra (Aceh; Toba Lands), Java, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali; Lombok; Sumba; Sumbawa), N Philippines, Sulawesi, New Caledonia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Ecija (photos by Leonardo Cristobal Udasco), Rizal. Chiefly in medium altitude grasslands, ascending to 1500m. Photos

Melampodium L.

Photos (non-Philippine)

  1. Melampodium diffusum Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 59 (1829) 238; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 609. Melampodium manillense Less., Linnaea 5 (1830) 155, t. 2, Fig. G. Melampodium divaricatum Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 213; --Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 161, non DC. Melampodium sericeum Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 117; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 160, non Lagasca. Native of Mexico. Naturalized in the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna. Open dry sandy soil in and about towns.

Melanthera Rohr

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 June 2013

Photos

  1. Melanthera biflora (L.) Wild, Kirkia 5 (1965) 4; --Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 18; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 477; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 269; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1093, Photo 498. S China, Taiwan, Japan, India though SE Asia to the Pacific isls. In littoral sites. Photos

Merrittia Merr. (~ Blumea)

No Photos
  1. Merrittia benguetensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 396; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Senecio benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 152; --Type: Elmer 6247. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Damp thickets and in the mossy forest, 1800-2400m.

Microglossa DC.

No Photos
  1. Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 1 (1891) 353; --Koster, Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 558; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1014, Photo 473; --Conyza pyrifolia Lam., Encycl. 2 (1786) 89. Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 320; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Conyza volubilis Wall., Cat. (1831) 3057, nomen nudum. Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Comoros, India, Myanmar, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, New Guinea. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Chiefly medium altitude thickets, ascending to 1500m.

Mikania Willd.

Photos
  1. Mikania cordata (Burm.) BL Robinson, Contr. Gray Herb. 104 (1934) 65; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 504. Mikania scandens (L.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 3 (1804) 1743; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 598. Photos
    • forma undulata Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 506. Native of tropical America, now pantropic in distribution. Throughout the Philippines in all islands and provinces. Very common in lowland and medium altitude thickets, ascending to 1600m.
    • forma villosa Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 509. Distribution:
  2. Mikania micrantha Kunth in Humb., Bonpl., & Kunth, Nov. Gen. 4 (1820) 134; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 510; Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 522. Tropical America. Introduced to Fiji, Marianas, Solomon Isls, New Britain, New Guinea, Philippines.

Myriactis Less.

Photos
  1. Myriactis humilis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 244; ibid. 5 c (1910) Bot. 394; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600; --Soejima & Peng in TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1017, Plate 483. Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet, Quezon (Mt Banahaw), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), NEGROS. Photos
  2. Myriactis mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2589; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 600, under syn. of M. humilis; -- Koster, Nova Guinea, Bot. 24 (1966) 610., Fig. 17a; --Type: Elmer 11507 (BISH, L, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, “upon water-soaked moss-covered rocks strewn along the Cati creek at 5750ft altitude of the east to northeastern side of Mt Apo”, Aug 1909. Borneo (Sabah: Mt Kinabalu), S Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Davao (Mt Apo). Photos

Pluchea Cass.

Photos (genus, non-Philippine)

  1. Pluchea indica (L.) Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 150; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 471; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1036, Plate 492. Pluchea scabrida DC, Prodr. 5 (1836) 453; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 116; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 106; --Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 309; EPFP 3 (1923) 606; --Type: Haenke s.n. (not seen, cited by Merrill (1923) to be in G-DC). India, Thailand, Indochina, S China, Taiwan, Japan, across Malesia, N Australia, Hawai’i. N LUZON to MINDANAO. Along the seashore, common in littoral sites such as mangroves, brackish swamps, and tidal flats. Occasionally more inlands.  

Pseudelephantopus Rohr

Photos
  1. Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr, Skrivt. Nat. Selsk. Kiob. 2 (1792) 213; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 465; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1041, Plate 495; --Elephantopus spicatus Juss. in Aubl., Pl. Guin. 2 (1775) 808; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 469; EPFP 3 (1923) 596. Native of South America, introduced and naturalized in Asia. Common throughout the Philippines in most islands and provinces. Lowland waste places and settlements generally. Photos

Pterocaulon Elliot 

Photos (genus, non-Philippine)

  1. Pterocaulon redolens (G Forst. ex Willd.) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 116; --Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 122; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; --Gnaphalium redolens G Forst., Prodr. (1786) 91. Pterocaulon cylindrostachyum CB Clarke, Comp. Ind. (1786) 98; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 116; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 379. Sphaeranthus elongatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 636; ibid. ed. 2 (1845) 443; ibid. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 30. Myanmar to Australia and New Caledonia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Batangas, MINDORO. Lowlands and medium altitudes, in open waste places. 

Pterocypsela C.Shih

No Photos
  1. Pterocypsela indica (L.) C.Shih, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 26 (1988) 387; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1043, pl. 496; --Lactuca indica L., Mant. 2 (1771) 278; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621. --Lactuca brevirostris Champ. In Hook., J. Bot. Kew Miscell. 4 (1852) 237; --Fern.-Vill., Novis. App. (1880) 120; --Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 165; Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 182. Lactuca squarrosa Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2 (1864) 189; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) 442. India, Indochina, S China, Taiwan, Ryukyu Isls, Japan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, New Guinea. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Laguna, Quezon, ALABAT, MINDORO, PANAY. Chiefly at medium altitudes, occasionally at sea level or ascending to 1500m. Grassy hillsides, open waste places along trails and streams, old clearings and garden regrowths, etc. 

Senecio L.

Photos
  1. Senecio luzoniensis Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 245; ibid. 3 c (1908) Bot. 127; ibid. 5 c (1910) Bot. 399; -- Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 154; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; --Type: Merrill 4791 (NY, US, iso). Luzon: Benguet prov., Suyoc to Pauai, Oct-Nov. 1905. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales. High montane thickets, steep slopes and forests, altitude 1800-2600m. Photos
  2. Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 178; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 619; --CI Peng & SW Chung in TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1056. S Asia, Thailand, Indochina, China, Taiwan, Japan, N Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Altitude 1300-2200m, in thickets. Photos

Siegesbeckia = Sigesbeckia

Sigesbeckia L.

  1. Sigesbeckia orientalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 900; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 117; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 163; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 162; --Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 411; ibid., 5 c (1910) Bot. 397; EPFP 3 (1923) 610; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 274; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1062, Plate 506; Photo 488. Africa to India, SE Asia, China, Taiwan, Japan, Australia. BATANES, LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Rizal, MINDANAO: Lanao. Chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 2100m in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon. In waste places, fallow fields, etc.

Solidago L.

Photos
  1. Solidago virgaurea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 880; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 126; --Merr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 245; ibid. 5 c (1910) Bot. 393; EPFP 3 (1923) 598. N Temperate Zone in both hemispheres, descending southward in the mountains through Japan to S China and Taiwan. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Altitude 1400-2100m, in thin pine forests on grassy slopes. Photos

Sonchus L.

Photos
  1. Sonchus brachyotus DC. Sonchus arvensis auctt., Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621, non L. Distribution of S brachyotus. Introduced in the Philippines. LUZON: E Abra, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Benguet. Montane areas at 1000-2400m. Common weed in cultivated lands, thin pine forests, along trails, talus slopes, open waste places, etc. S. brachyotus DC is distinguished from S. arvensis L. by its shorter pappus. Photos
  2. Sonchus oleraceus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 794; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 621; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1073, Plate 512; Photo 491. Eurasia, in temperate and subtemperate countries. An introduced plant in the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Rizal, Laguna. Altitude 1200-2400m in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon, where it thrives as a common weed in temperate vegetable farms, talus slopes, sunny trails and other exposed sites.  Photos

Sparganophorus Boehm. = Struchium

Sphaeranthus L.

No Photos
  1. Sphaeranthus africanus L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2 (1762) 1314; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 116; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 122; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 162; Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 118; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 469; Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 379; EPFP 3 (1923) 607; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1073. Sphaeranthus alatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 635. Sphaeranthus indicus Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 722; ibid. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 29; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 116, non L. Tropical Africa and Asia through Malesia and Australia. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. A weed in open rather damp waste places in and about towns.

Sphagneticola O.Hoffm.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 June 2013

Photos
  1. Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Fl. St. John (Mem. New York Bot. Gard., 78) (1996) 114; --Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc., Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4 (1893) 99; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1097. Native of tropical America. Widely cultivated as an ornamental ground cover. Escaping cultivation and fast becoming naturalized in many parts of the Philippines. Photos

Spilanthes Jacq. = Acmella

Struchium P.Browne

Photos
  1. Struchium sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891) 366. --Sparganophorus vaillantii Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 1 (1766) 261. Photos

Synedrella Gaertn.

Photos
  1. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn., Fruct. 2 (1791) 456, t. 171; --Naves in Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 3 (1877-83) t. 404; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 118; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 171; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 472; EPFP 3 (1923) 612; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 271; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1075, Plate 513; -- Verbesina nodiflora L., Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 290. Blainvillea latifolia Walp., Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 19 (1843) Suppl. 1: 266; --Ceron, Cat. Pl. Herb. (1892) 102, non DC. Blainvillea rhomboidea Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 165, non Cass. Native of tropical America, now a common pantropic weed. Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, a ubiquitous weed in open waste places. Photos

Tagetes L.

Photos
  1. Tagetes erecta L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 887; --Novis. App. (1880) 119; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 136; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Native of Mexico, now pantropical in cultivation. A common ornamental plant in the Philippines. Photos (non-Philippine)
  2. Tagetes patula L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 887; --Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 632; ibid. ed. 2 (1845) 440; ibid. ed. 3, 3 (1879) 23, t. 404bis; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 381; EPFP 3 (1923) 614. Native of Mexico, now widely distributed in cultivation. A common ornamental plant in the Philippines, said to be throughly naturalized in the Cordillera highlands of N Luzon, along streambanks and gravel bars at 1200-1500m altitudes. Marigold. Photos (non-Philippine)

Taraxacum Weber ex F.H.Wigg.

Photos
  1. Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers, Prim. Pl. Holst. (1780) 56; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 621; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1079, Plate 515. Temperate zone weed, native of Eurasia. In the Philippines, thoroughly naturalized in LUZON: Benguet (vicinity of Baguio-La Trinidad), in temperate vegetable gardens, roadsides, lawns, etc., altitude c. 1400m. Photos Photos (non-Philippine)

Tithonia Desf. ex Juss.

Photos
  1. Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 19 (1883) 5; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 264; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1083; --Mirasolia diversifolia Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Amer., Bot. 2 (1881) 168, t. 47. Native of Mexico and Central America. Naturalized in many other tropical countries. Photos

Tridax L.

Photos

  1. Tridax procumbens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 900; --Koster, Blumea 25 (1979) 263; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1084, Plate 517; Photo 493. Native of tropical America, now in all warm countries. Thoroughly naturalized in the lowland areas of the Philippines. Photos

Vernonia Schreb.

Photos

  1. Vernonia acrophila Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 253; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: FB 8057 Curran & Merritt (NY, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., Mt Tapulao (=High Peak), in the elfinwood, exposed peaks, above 2000m, 13-Oct-1907. LUZON: Zambales (High Peak). Exposed peaks and ridges near the summit, c. 2000m. 
  2. Vernonia apoensis Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 687; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: Elmer 10764 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘in forest at 3750ft’, May-1909. LUZON: Benguet, MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur, Davao (Mt Apo). In forests, 650-2200m. 
  3. Vernonia arborea Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. 14 (1825) 218; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 384 (as var. typica); --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 371; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 12-6; --Vernonia florescens Elmer, LPB 2 (1910) 685; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: Elmer 11613 (BISH, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, ‘in moist humus-covered soil of woods at 3500ft of Mt Calelan’, Sep-1909. Photos
    • var. arborea. Tropical SE Asia and throughout Malesia. N LUZON to MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Low and medium elevation, ascending to c. 1000m, mostly along forest edges and secondary forests.
  4. Vernonia benguetensis Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 94 in nota; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: Elmer 6584. LUZON: Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya. Open grasslands up to 1500m. Note by L.L.Co: Similar to some forms of V. cinerea Less., should be in Cyanthilium??
  5. Vernonia bontocensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 473; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Type: BS 37752 Ramos & Edaño (US, iso), Luzon: Mountain Province, Mt Pukis, open slopes, c. 1300m, Mar-1920. LUZON: Mountain Province. Open slopes, c. 1300m.
  6. Vernonia cuneata Less., Linnaea 6 (1831) 644; --Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 114; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 92; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 447. --Vernonia lenticellata Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: Elmer 6564 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto Tomas, near the summit, c. 2200m, Jun-1904. --Vernonia pyrrhopappa Schulz-Bip. ex Klatt, Flora 68 (1885) 203; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595. --Vernonia villarii Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2593; --Type: Elmer 13171, Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), ‘in woods of the forested ridge at 250ft altitude’, May-1911. Philippines, Moluccas, LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, altitude c. 2200m (as V lenticellata) BUSUANGA, PALAWAN, BALABAC, CATANDUANES, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis. Low and medium elevation forests (as V. pyrrhopappa). Photos
  7. Vernonia elmeri Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 252; EPFP 3 (1923) 592; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 417; --Syntypes: Merrill 793. --Gynura angulosa Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 146, excl. syn., non DC. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao. Low and medium elevation thickets.
  8. Vernonia fimbrillata Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 401. “In the Philippines a specimen has been collected, that seems to be very closely related to [V. fimbrillata]; the involucral scales are not so long-fringed, however, but shortly ciliate along the margin, and subacute, the achenes are densely glandular and glabrous: LUZON, Mountain Province, Vanoverbergh 689 (K, L). A specimen from BUSUANGA, Lopez 41367 (L) has leaves with narrow tips (leaves to 5.5 cm broad, 16 cm long); it apparently belongs to the same species”
  9. Vernonia glandulifolia Merr., PJS 14 c (1919) Bot. 456; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: BS 7490 Ramos. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, PALAWAN. Low and medium elevation. Forested slopes.
  10. Vernonia lancifolia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 253; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Type: RS Williams 420 (US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River, 2-Jan-1904. --Vernonia acuminatissima Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3076; --Type: Elmer 18064 (BISH, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Forested ridges, 900-1300m. Photos
  11. Vernonia mindanaensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 474; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --Type: BS 38886 Ramos & Edaño, Mindanao: Bukidnon prov., Mt Candoon, damp forest, c. 1000m, Jun-1920. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Bukidnon (Mt Candoon). Damp forests, 600-1000m.
  12. Vernonia phanerophlebia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 106; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --Type: Vanoverbergh 688, Luzon: Mountain Province, Malamey (Pinggat), in forest, c. 1450m, 23-Jul-1910. LUZON: Mountain Province. Montane forests, c. 1500m.
  13. Vernonia philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 312; --Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 121; Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 160; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 89; --Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 393; EPFP 3 (1923) 594; --Type: Cuming 1092, Luzon: Albay prov. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna. Low and medium altitude forests, ascending to 1000m. 
  14. Vernonia pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2590; --Type: Elmer 12948, cited as 12848 in the original protologue (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, ‘scandent upon small trees on steep rocky soil of forests at 2000ft’, 1-Apr-1911. PALAWAN. Primary forests, c. 600m.
  15. Vernonia urdanetensis Elmer, LPB 7 (1915) 2591; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595; --Type: Elmer 13634 (BISH, MO, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta (=Mt Hilong-hilong), ‘woods of the saddle between Duros and Cawilanan peaks at 3500ft…’, Aug-1912. MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Hilong-hilong). Primary forests, c. 1050m.
  16. Vernonia vidalii Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 6 (1904) 6; PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 138; --Elmer, LPB 1 (1906) 91; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 595. --Vernonia arborea Ham. var. vestita Vidal, Rev. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 160, non Vernonia vestita Baker. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya (Bagabag), Zambales, Bataan, Rizal (San Mateo; Tanay), Laguna. Chiefly in secondary forests, sea-level to 1300m. 
  17. Vernonia zollingeriana Schulz-Bip. in Zoll., Syst. Verz. Ind. Arch. (1854) 119; --Koster, Blumea 1 (1935) 433. --Vernonia maritima Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 440; EPFP 3 (1923) 593; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1091, Photo 496. S Taiwan, Xiao Lanyu Is, N Philippines, Java. BATAN. On littoral rocky cliffs. 

Wedelia Jacq.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 17 June 2013

No Photos
  1. Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr., PJS 12 c (1917) Bot. 111; EPFP 3 (1923) 611; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1094, Plate 522; Photo 499. India, SE Asia, China, Taiwan, Japan. Paddy ridges, moist grassy fields, 
  2. Wedelia stenophylla Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 429; --Type: FB 29751 (UC, iso). Mindanao: Misamis prov., on the top of Angyar Ridge, altitude c. 400m, 22 Jul 1924.

Xanthium L.

(Not native to the Philippines)

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 September 2012

Photos
  1. Xanthium strumarium L., Sp. Pl. 2 (1753) 987. Widespread distribution. Not native to the Philippines. NEGROS.  Photos

Youngia Cass.

Photos
  1. Youngia japonica (L.) DC, Prodr. 7 (1838) 194; --Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 2 (1965) 437; --Steen., Mountain Fl. Java (1972) Plate 9-8; --Peng et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2, 4 (1998) 1098, Plate 525; --Crepis japonica (L.) Benth., Fl. Hongkong. (1861) 194; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 479; EPFP 3 (1923) 622; --Prenanthes japonica L., Mantissa (1767) 107. India to Japan, across Malesia to Australia and the tropical Pacific isls. Weed in clearings, talus slopes, riverbanks, etc. Photos

Zinnia L.

Photos
  1. Zinnia elegans Jacq., Icon. Pl. Rar. 3 (1793) t. 589. Cultivated. Photos (non-Philippine)

Non-naturalized:

     
  1. Achillea millefolium L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 899; Europe, N Africa, Asia, introduced in Malesia, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, N & S America. LUZON: Benguet. Photos (non-Philippine).
  2. Boltonia Author. Photos (non-Philippine).
  3. Carthamus tinctorius L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 830; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 620. Photos (non-Philippine).
  4. Centaurea Linnaeus Photos (non-Philippine).
  5. Cichorium intybus L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 813; --Brown, WH., Useful Plants of the Philipp. 3 (1946) xxx.; --Peng, CI et al. in: TC Huang (ed.). Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 903. Native of N Europe. Widely naturalized in North America. Photos (non-Philippine).
  6. Dahlia rosea Cav. Photos (non-Philippine).
  7. Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. Native of Central America. Several forms cultivated as an ornamental.
  8. Gaillardia pulchella Foug. Native of N America. Several forms cultivated here as an ornamental or as cut-flower. Photos  (non-Philippine).
  9. Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook. Native of South Africa. Cultivated as cut-flower in mountainous regions. Photos (non-Philippine).
  10. Rudbeckia spp. (check Steiner; Madulid). Photos   Photos (non-Philippine).
  11. Smallanthus Mack. Photos (non-Philippine). Same as Polymnia   Photos (non-Philippine). 
  12. Solidago canadensis L. Native of N America. Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental from lowlands to lower montane regions. Photos (non-Philippine). 
 

Literature

Belcher, RO. 1956. A revision of the genus Erechtithes (Compositae) with inquiries into Senecio and Arrhenechtithes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 43: 1-85.

Boulos, L. 1961. On the synonymy and distribution of Sonchus arvensis L. Botaniska Notiser 114: 57-64, 4 fig., 2 maps.

Cabrera, AL. 1966. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae). Blumea 14: 285-308.

Jansen, RK. 1985. The systematics of Acmella (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Systematic Botany Monograph 8: 1-115.

Koster, J. Th. 1935. The Compositae of the Malay Archipelago. I. Vernonieae and Eupatorieae. Blumea 1: 351-536.

Koyama, H. 1995. Crepidiastrum Nakai. In K Iwatsuki, DE Boufford & H Ohba (eds.) Flora of Japan 3(b): 13-15.

Lamont, E and U Ferreras. 2012. A new species of Eupatorium (Asteraceae) from the Philippines. Brittonia 64: 368-373.

Nicolson, DH. 1980. Summary of cytological information on Emilia and the taxonomy of four Pacific taxa of Emilia (Asteraceae: Senecioideae). Systematic Botany 5 (4): 391-407.

Peng, CI and KF Chung, Li HL. 1998. Compositae in: TC Huang (ed.). Flora of Taiwan, 2nd edition, 4: 807-1101.

Randeria, AJ. 1960. The composite genus Blumea, a taxonomic revision. Blumea 10: 176-317.

Sherff, EE. 1937. The genus Bidens, Parts I & II. Field Museum Nat. Hist. Bot. Series 16: 1-709.

Shih, C. 1988. Revision of Lactuca L. and two new genera of the tribe Lactuceae (Compositae) of the mainland China of Asia. Acta Phytotaxomomica Sinica 26: 382-393.

Vanijajiva, O., 2008. Systematics and biogeography of Southeast Asian Senecioneae (Asteraceae): revision of Cissampelopsis and Gynura and hybridisation in the introduced Crassocephalum. PhD thesis, Mainz, Germany.

Vanijajiva, O, and JW Kadereit. 2011. A revision of Gynura (Asteraceae: Senecioneae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 49: 285–314.

Various papers in Blumea and Nova Guinea 

Author. 2006. Glebionis. Flora North America 19: 554.

Acknowledgements

Jasper John Obico, Ravan Schneider, Leonardo Cristobal Udasco, and Matt Walters kindly contributed some of the photographs on this webpage.

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated July 16, 2014