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Aquifoliaceae

Ilex L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 14 October 2017

Photos
  1. Ilex antonii Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1666; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 476; --Type: Elmer 11348, Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in the elfinwoods of Mt Calelan at 8000ft. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Dense thickets on high exposed ridges, c. 2400m. Perhaps not distinct from Ilex microthyrsa Loesen. ex Elmer.
  2. Ilex asprella (Hook. & Arnott) Champ.ex Benth. in Hook., Kew J. Bot. 4 (1852) 329; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 477; --Prinos asprellus Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. 176–177, pl. ( 1841) 36. --Ilex gracilipes Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 237; PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 358; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664. Photos
  3. Ilex buergeri Miq. in Versl. Med. Akad. Wetensch. II, 2 (1868) 84. Photos
  4. Ilex crenata Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 78.
  5. Ilex curranii Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 273; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; --Type: FB 18069 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Pulag, slopes in the mossy forest, c. 2500m, 6-Jan-1908. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulog). Mossy forest, c. 2500m.
  6. Ilex cymosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1149; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 478; --Andrews, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 12; --Type: from Java (lecto). --Ilex philippinensis Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308. --Ilex cymosa var. cumingiana (Rolfe) Loesen., Nov. Act. Deutsch. Akad. Natura. 78 (1901) 76; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 478; --Ilex cumingiana Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 308. Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak; Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Zambales, Quezon, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur (Agusan Marsh), BUCAS GRANDE. Locally common in lowland primary forests, ascending to 800m. Also in peat swamps. Photos
  7. Ilex formosana Maxim., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 7. 29. n. III. (1881) 46. --Ilex loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 31; EPFP 4 (1925) 252; --Type: Loher 14144 (A, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bantol, Feb-1914. 
  8. Ilex guerreroi Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 316; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663; --Type: Guerrero s.n., Luzon: Rizal prov., mountains back of San Mateo, 1910. LUZON: Rizal. In forests.
  9. Ilex hanceana Maxim., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 7. 29. n. III. (1881) 33. --Ilex fletcheri Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 279; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663. S China, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Aurora, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon). On exposed ridges, 1400-2200m.
  10. Ilex kusanoi Hayata, Mater. Fl. Formos. (1911) 55; Hu, J. Arn. Arb. 34 (1954) 143, excl. syn. Ilex poneantha Koidz.; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 37. Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN: Mt Iraya. In thickets, 100m. 
  11. Ilex malaccensis Loes., Monogr. Aquifol. 1 (1901) 432; --Andrews, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 4 (2002) 18; --Type: from Sarawak (lecto). --Ilex racemifera Loes., Nov. Act. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf. 89 (1908) 290; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 479; --Type: Warburg 14640, Mindanao: Davao. --Ilex foxworthyi Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 193; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663. --Ilex halconensis (Merr.) Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 478; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663; --Embelia halconensis Merr., PJS 2 c (1907) Bot. 297. --Ilex apoensis Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1667; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 476; --Type: Elmer 11449 (for flower, BISH, US) and 11408 (for fruit, BISH, NA, NY, US), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, upper forested region, 7000ft, Aug-1909. --Ilex pulogensis Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 358; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; --Type: FB 18145 Curran, Merritt & Zschokke (A, type fragment), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Pulag, mossy forest above 2250m. --Ilex brunnea Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 318; EPFP 2 (1923) 477; --Type: BS 19461 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Pular, apparently on trees at the summit of the mountain, 15-Jan-1913. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak; Brunei; Sabah; Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON: Benguet (Mt Pulag), Laguna (Mt Banahaw), Quezon (Mt Pular), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), PANAY, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad), Davao (Mt Apo). Usually in mid-high montane forests and exposed ridges from 1000-2300m. Also recorded as epiphytic or pseudoepiphytic from 300-700m. Photos
  12. Ilex microthyrsa Loesen. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 479. LUZON: Zambales, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang). Exposed ridges, 1800-2400m.
  13. Ilex pachyphylla Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 318; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; --Type: BS 9400 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Binuang, mossy forest, c. 980m, 28-Aug-1909. LUZON: Quezon (Mt Binuang). Mossy forest, 900-1000m.
  14. Ilex palawanica Loesen. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 479; --Type: BS 555 Foxworthy, Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (Thumb Peak). PALAWAN: Mt Pulgar. Dense thickets on exposed ridges, c. 1200m. Apparently, no published description exist; certainly none in Elmer’s Leaflets. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  15. Ilex paucinervia Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 274; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; --Type: BS 26396 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; US, isolecto), Luzon: Nueva Ecija prov., Mt Umingan, forest at the summit, probably c. 1000m, 19-Aug-1916. LUZON: Nueva Ecija. Mossy forests, c. 1000m. Photos
  16. Ilex permicrophylla Merr., PJS 26 (1925) 468; EPFP 4 (1925) 249; --Type: BS 40311 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Baudan, mossy forest, c. 2100m, Sep-1921. LUZON: Benguet. Mossy forests, c. 2100m.
  17. Ilex subcaudata Merr. ex Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1664; --Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 317; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; --Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1663; --Type: Guerrero s.n., Luzon: Rizal prov., mountains back of San Mateo, 1910. LUZON: Rizal. In forest.
  18. Ilex warburgii Loesen., Nov. Act. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf. 78 (1901) 326.
  19. Ilex wenzelii Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 382; EPFP 2 (1923) 479; --Type: Wenzel 99 (US, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov., Dagami, epiphytic on large trees in forest, c. 60m, 5-Jun-1913. --Ilex epiphytica Elmer, LPB 5 (1913) 1667, nom. illeg., auct. non King; --Type: Elmer 13718 (PNH, holo, lost; BISH, MO, NA, NY, US, iso), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta, upon moss and vine-covered large limbs of massive trees in a forested depression at 3500ft between Duros and Cawilanan peaks, Sep-1912. LEYTE, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte. Primary forests up to 1100m, epiphytic or pseudoepiphytic.


Literature

Cuenoud, P, MA Del Pero Martinez, P-A Loizeau, R Spichiger, S Andrews & J-F Manen. 2000. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Ilex L. (Aquifoliaceae). Annals of Botany 85: 111-122.

DENR Administrative Order. 2017. Updated national list of threatened Philippine plants and their categories. DAO 2017-11

Manen, JF, MC Boulter & Y Naciri-Graven. 2002. The complex history of the genus Ilex L. (Aquifoliaceae): evidence from the comparison of plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and from fossil data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 235: 79-98.

Pelser, P.B., J.F. Barcelona & D.L. Nickrent (eds.). 2011 onwards. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Copyright © 2011, Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

Last updated 14 October 2017