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Apocynaceae

Adenium Roem. & Schult. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2017

Photos

  1. Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis [Roemer & Schultes] 4 (1819) 411; --Nerium obesum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 205. Native to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Cultivated. Naturalized? Photos

Allamanda L. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2017

Photos

  1. Allamanda cathartica L., Mant. 2 (1771) 214; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 320. --Allamanda hendersonii Bull. ex Dombr., Fl. Mag. 5 (1866) t. 263; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 320. Native to tropical America. Cultivated. Naturalized? Photos
  2. Allamanda schottii Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1(3) (1827) 73, t. 58. Native to South America. Cultivated. Naturalized? Photos

Alstonia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2017

Photos
  1. Alstonia iwahigensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1447; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 321; --Sidiy., Blumea, Suppl. 11 (1998) 135; --D.J.Middleton, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 5 (2004) 19; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18  (2007) 44; --Type: Elmer 13167 (L, lecto; A, BO, G, GH,  HBG, MICH, MO, NY, US, Z, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb  Peak). Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar, Irawan River Valley), BALABAC. Primary and secondary forests up to 600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1837) 87; --A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 409; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 322; --Markgraf, Blumea 22 (1974) 28; --Sidiy., Blumea, Suppl. 11 (1998) 149; --D.J.Middleton, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 5 (2004) 20; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 46. --Alstonia batino Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 589; --Type: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 335 (L, neo; A, BM, BO, F, K, MO, NY, P, W, iso), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Angat. --Alstonia oblongifolia Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 65; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 322; --Type: FB 4495 Curran (K, lecto; NY, P, US, iso), Palawan. --Alstonia macrophylla var. mollis Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 322; --Type: FB 17128 Curran (L, lecto; BO, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov. --Alstonia paucinervia Merr., PJS 5 c (1910) Bot. 224; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 322; --Type: FB 18726 Darling (US, lecto), Luzon: Camarines prov. Sri Lanka, Nicobar Isls, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Biliton, throughout Malesia (except Java, Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, Camarines, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar =Thumb Peak, Irawan, Impapai Forest, Victoria Mtns, Brookes’s Point), ROMBLON, PANAY, GUIMARAS, MINDANAO. In open forests and thickets at low and medium elevation; common. Photos
  3. Alstonia parvifolia Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 35 (1906) 59; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 322; --Markgraf, Blumea 22 (1974) 27; --Sidiy., Blumea, Suppl. 11 (1998) 160; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 49; --Type: FB 2209 Meyer (K, lecto; NY, isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora (Sierra Madre NNW of Dingalan), Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Rizal (Mt Irid), NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns). Secondary growth in logged-over forests; rocky forested slopes and exposed ridges on Mt Mariveles, 800-1000m. Photos
  4. Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. in Mém. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1 (1811) 76; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 322; --Markgraf, Blumea 22 (1974) 23; --Sidiy., Blumea, Suppl. 11 (1998) 176; --D.J.Middleton, Tree Fl. Sabah & Sarawak 5 (2004) 22; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 57; --Echites scholaris L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 53. Pakistan, Nepal, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China (Yunnan), Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, throughout Malesia, Solomon Isls and Australia (Queensland), Philippines. LUZON (Cagayan) to PALAWAN and MINDANAO, in most or all islands and provinces. In primary and secondary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  5. Alstonia spectabilis R.Br. in Mém. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1 (1811) 76; --Markgraf, Blumea 22 (1974) 23; --Sidiy., Blumea, Suppl. 11 (1998) 184; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 61; --Type from Timor. --Alstonia angustifolia auct. non Wall. ex A.DC.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 321, as to Elmer 10840. Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Muna Isl, Java, Kangean Arch., Lesser Sunda Isls (Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, Roti, Timor, Tanimbar), Moluccas (Ambon, Kai), Japen, Aru Isls, New Guinea, New Britain. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya).   

Alyxia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Alyxia angustifolia Ridley, J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 6 (1915) 161; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977)  385, pro parte; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 29; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 74; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN.  
  2. Alyxia angustissima Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 82 (1954) 334; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 410; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 31; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 75; --Type: PNH 8018 Celestino (A, holo; A, K, L, PNH, iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Mt Polis, Mar-1948. Endemic to the Philippines. N LUZON: Ifugao (Mt Polis), DINAGAT (PPI 4559 Gaerlan, Sagcal & Fernando). Dipterocarp forest on clay on Dinagat, montane forest, c. 1900m on Mt Polis. Photos
  3. Alyxia concatenata (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 310; EPFP 3 (1923) 327; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 393; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 29; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18  (2007) 80; --Brabejum concatenatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 40; --Type: Not traced, Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 159 (L, neo; A (scrap), BM, BO,  GH, K, MO, NY, P, US, W, isoneo), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso. --Gymnopogon moniliferus (S.Vidal) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 46; --Alyxia monilifera S.Vidal, Revis. Pl. Vasc. Filip. (1886) 182; --Type: Vidal 461 (K, lecto; K, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Banahaw. --Alyxia clusiacea (Baill.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’]) 166; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 380, pro parte; --Paralstonia clusiacea Baill., Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1888) 750; --Merr.,  EPFP 3 (1923) 323; --Type: Barthe s.n. (P, lecto; P, isolecto), Philippines. --Alyxia confertiflora Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 64; EPFP 3 (1923) 327; --Type: BS 16143 Reillo (US, lecto; A, BM, isolecto), Basilan. Aug/Sep-1912. --Alyxia quadrata Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 327, nom. nud.; --Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3692, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Voucher: Elmer 15827 (A, BISH, BM, BO, C, G, GH, HBG, K, L, MO,  NA, NY, P, S, U, UC, US, Z), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan. Apr-1916. --Alyxia luzoniensis auct. non Merr.; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 392, pro parte. Endemic to the Philippines. BABUYAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Isabela, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO, N PALAWAN, SIBUYAN, MASBATE, PANAY: Antique, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), CEBU, BOHOL, BILIRAN, LEYTE, N SAMAR, CAMIGUIN, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental (Mt Malindang), Lanao del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao (Mt Apo), South Cotabato (Mt Matutum), Agusan del Norte (Butuan, Mt Hilong-hilong), Surigao del Norte. From lowland primary forests and secondary growth, lower montane or mossy forests, 200-2400m, on clay soils. Photos.
  4. Alyxia linearis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 406; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 66; Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 92; --Alyxia rosmarinifolia Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 82 (1954) 335, nom. illeg., auct. non (Baill.) Guillaumin; --Type: PNH 176 Edaño (A, holo; A, L, PNH, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Bacungan, 23-Mar-1947. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Puerto Princesa, Bacungan, Balanjao Range, Rio Tuba). Forests on ultramafics, low elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  5. Alyxia luzoniensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977)  392, pro parte; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 69; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007)  94; --Type: BS 7007 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost); BS 5107 Ramos (P, neo; NY, isoneo), Luzon: Mountain Province, Bontoc. --Brabejum lucidum Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 40; --Alyxia blancoi Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 330; EPFP 3 (1923) 327; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 401, pro parte; --Type: not traced; BS 11118  Ramos (L, neo; A, BM, K, P, US, isoneo), Cebu: hills above Cebu City. Mar-1912. --Alyxia lanceolata Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 53; EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --Type: BS 29209 Ramos (A, lecto; BO, K, NY, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Siniloan-Infanta Trail. --Alyxia laxiflora Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 54; EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 408; --Type: BS 28371 Fenix (A, lecto; BM, BO, K, L, NY, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Apayao prov., Mt Sulu. --Alyxia stenophylla Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 305; EPFP 3 (1923) 329; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 410; --Type: BS 35574 Martelino & Edaño (A, lecto; BO, K, L, NY, P, US, isolecto), Panay: Capiz prov., Mt Salibongbong. --Alyxia ecostata Merr. & Quisumb., PJS 82 (1954) 335; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 408; --Type: PNH 6421 Sulit (A, holo; BM, K, L, PNH, US, iso), Samar: Mt Calbiga, near Wright. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Zambales, Aurora, Bulacan, Rizal, Quezon, Camarines Sur, PANAY: Capiz (Mt Salibongbong), CEBU, SAMAR (Mt Calbiga). Thickets and forests from low to medium elevation, most common at 600-700m elevations, ascending to 1600m. Photos
  6. Alyxia monticola C.B.Rob., PJS 6 c (1911) Bot. 356; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --Type: C.B. Robinson 9359 (untraced, fide Middleton), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Binuang. --Alyxia sibuyanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1448; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 381, pro parte; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 115; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 119; --Type: Elmer 12137a (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, BO, E, G, GH, HBG, K, NY, US, W, WRSL, Z, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. On shrubberies of wooded bank near a seepage gravelly soil of the Pauala River, 1000 ft., Apr-1910. --Alyxia retusa Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 448; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 328; --Type: BS 33330 Ramos (K, lecto; A, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Palimlim, Aug-1918. --Alyxia glabra Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 53; EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 327; --Type: BS 29207 Ramos & Edaño (K, lecto; P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Infanta-Siniloan Trail, Jun-1917. --Alyxia revoluta Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 52; EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 328; --Type: BS 25515 Yates (US, lecto; K, P, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Mt Cadig, Dec-1916. Taiwan (Lanyu), Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Rizal, Quezon, Camarines Sur, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, SAMAR, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte. Primary or secondary lowland to montane or gallery forest, or in thickets or mangroves, 0-1735m. On clay, rocky, volcanic or ultrabasic soils. Photos
  7. Alyxia muguma D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 78; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 100; --Type: PNH 72704 Conklin & del Rosario (L, holo; A, K, PNH, iso), Luzon: Ifugao prov., Sumigar, near Banawe, 1680m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao (Sumigar, near Banawe). Only known from the type collection. 
  8. Alyxia obovatifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 306; EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 47 (2002) 75; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 102; --Type: BS 34492 Ramos & Pascasio (K, lecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., rather dry lowland thickets along streams, 25-Apr-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Known only from the type collection. Possibly on ultramafics. 
  9. Alyxia palawanensis Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 400; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 86; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 104; --Type: PNH 12397 Sulit (A, holo; A, BO, L, PNH, SING, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Victoria Mtns. Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. PALAWAN (Mt Beaufort; Victoria Mtns). Primary ridge mossy forest with stunted trees, on sandstone or schist at 900-1950m. 
  10. Alyxia parvifolia (Merr.) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 313; EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 392; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 89; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 106; --Gymnopogon parvifolius Merr., Publ. Bur. Govt. Lab. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 46; --Type: Elmer 5800 (US, lecto; BO, G, K, NY, P, PNH, PR, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mt Sto. Tomas. Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Mossy forests, on rotting tree stumps or sandy-loamy soil, 1700-2500m. Note: on Middleton’s (2000) distribution map, two sites (i.e. Cagayan E coast and Manila) were likewise included. These two sites have elevations close to sea level. Photos
  11. Alyxia reinwardtii Blume, Catalogus (1823) 43; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 386; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 45 (2000) 100; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 112; --Type from Java. --Alyxia lucida Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1824) 540; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 328; --Markgr., Blumea 23 (1977) 389; --Type from Singapore. S China, Myanmar, Andaman Isls, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra (and adjacent isls), Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali). CULION, PALAWAN (Mt Beaufort; Victoria Mtns), TAWI-TAWI. Dry forests at low elevation in Culion.

Amphineurion (DC.) Pichon

Photos

  1. Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J.Middleton, Taxon 55 (2006) 502; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 129; --Aganosma marginata (Roxb.) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 77; --Echites marginatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 16; --Aganosma acuminata (Roxb.) G.Don, Gen. Syst. 4 (1837) 77; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 374; EPFP 3 (1923) 334; --Echites acuminatus Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 15, nom. illeg., auct. non Ruiz & Pav.; --Type: Illustration 2461 of Echites acuminatus in the Roxburgh collection in Kew library. --Aganosma velutina A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 434; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 334; --Type: Cuming 1803 (G, lecto; E, G, K, L, MO, NY, P, TCD, UPS, W, isolecto). India, Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, La Union, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, MINDORO, PALAWAN, TICAO, NEGROS, MINDANAO. Thickets and secondary forests, chiefly in seasonal areas at low and medium elevation. Photos

Anodendron DC.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Anodendron affine (Hook. & Arn.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Brit. Isles 1916 (1917) 605; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 40; --Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 134; --Holarrhena affinis Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy. (1837) 198; --Type: untraced; neotype from China. --Anodendron loheri Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 332; EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 333; --Type: Loher 6494 (US, lecto; K, M, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., Mt Pinatubo. Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, S China, Hainan, Taiwan, Japan, Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan (Lamao River), Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna (Mt Makiling), CATANDUANES, SAMAR. Lowland primary forests. Photos
  2. Anodendron axillare Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 331; EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 333; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 42; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 136; --Type: FB 13572 Meyer & Foxworthy (US, lecto; L, isolecto), Negros: Negros Occidental prov., Faraon. Aug/Sep-1909. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan), Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Faraon), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Tungao, drainage of Agusan River, 26 km S of Butuan), Surigao del Norte. Low and medium elevation forests.
  3. Anodendron borneense (King & Gamble) D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41: 46 (1996); --Cleghornia borneensis King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 74 (1908) 492; --Type from Borneo. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  4. Anodendron candolleanum Wight, Icon. 4 (1848) t. 1309; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 47; Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 137; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia. Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra (Aceh), Java, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah) and central E Philippines. BILIRAN (Mt Suiro, based on PNH 21682 Sulit, A, K, L, LAE).
  5. Anodendron coriaceum (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 455; --Echites coriaceus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 16 (1826) 1039; --Type from Java. Borneo, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Thailand, Philippines. CEBU (Bicknell 1085, Jul-1996).
  6. Anodendron gracile (King & Gamble) D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 50; --Cleghornia gracilis King & Gamble, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 74 (1908) 491; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. PALAWAN (Mt. Gantung).
  7. Anodendron oblongifolium Hemsl., Ann. Bot. 5 (1891) 504; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 52; Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 139; --Type from Solomon Isls (San Cristobal). --Anodendron paniculatum auct. non A.DC.; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 333, pro parte (under syn. of A manubriatum). Vanuatu, Solomon Isls, Papua New Guinea, Moluccas (Seram), Borneo (Kalimantan, Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Bosoboso), Laguna (Mt Makiling), MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, Davao Oriental (Mati).
  8. Anodendron paniculatum A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 444; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 54; Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 139. LUZON. --Anodendron manubriatum (Wall.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 333; EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 333. --Type from Bangladesh. --Parsonsia bulusanensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 333, nom. illeg. (in synonymy of Anodendron manubriatum). India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nicobars, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas. LUZON: Laguna (above Pansol), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Abra de Ilog), Mindoro Oriental (Mansalay, Mt Yagaw), PALAWAN (Taytay, Quezon, Mono), GUIMARAS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga (Malangas), DINAGAT. Photos

Asclepias L. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Asclepias curassavica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 215; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 377; EPFP 3 (1923) 341. Native of the American tropics now pantropic in distribution. Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas, open waste places, etc., ascending to at least 1500m. Photos

Brachystelma R.Br. = Ceropegia

Calotropis R.Br. [Not native]

Photos
  1. Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. in Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 2 (1811) 78; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 341; --Asclepias gigantea L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 214. Introduced from tropical Asia, now pantropic in distribution (usually planted as hedges). Thoroughly naturalized in the Philippines, sometimes escaping. Photos

Carissa L. [Not native]

Photos

  1. Carissa carandas L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 52. Native to Bangladesh and India. Cultivated. Naturalized.

Carruthersia Seem.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Carruthersia glabra D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 8 (2003) 1; Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 155; --Type: PNH 6440 Sulit, Samar: Mt Calbiga. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR: Mt Calbiga. Midmontane forest at 300m.
  2. Carruthersia pilosa (A.DC.) Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. (1880) 132; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 335; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 155; --Kopsia pilosa A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 352; --Type: Cuming 1783 (G-DC, lecto; BM, CGE, E, FR, K, L, NY, P, W, Z, isolecto), Philippines. --Carruthersia macgregorii Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 261; EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 335; --Type: McGregor 285 (K, lecto; K, NY, US, isolecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River. --Carruthersia hirsuta Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 587; --Type: Elmer 8899 (E, lecto; BM, BO, MO, NY, US, W, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio. --Carruthersia kindleyi Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1452; --Type: Elmer 7833 (K, lecto; A, BO, BP, E, L, MO, NSW, NY, US, W, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. Philippines, Solomon Isls. LUZON: Benguet, Zambales, Bataan, Quezon, Laguna, Sorsogon, PALAWAN (Taytay), CEBU. Primary and secondary forests, at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1500m. Photos

Insufficiently known taxa:

  1. Carruthersia axilliflora Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 51; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 12351, Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Oct-1909. LUZON: Rizal. Now only known from description; holotype probably destroyed at PNH in 1945; no isotype seen by Middleton. 

Cascabela Raf. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2017

Photos
  1. Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold, Feddes Repert. 91 (1980) 52; --Cerbera thevetia L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 209. --Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum., Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(2) (1895) 159; --Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 130; EPFP 3 (1923) 331. --Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 343; --Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steudel, Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1841) 680, nom. inval.; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 370.Native to C and S America. Cultivated. Naturalized? Photos

Catharanthus G.Don [Not native]

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 24 October 2016

Photos
  1. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1836) 95; --Lochnera rosea (L.) Rchb., Conspect. (1828) 134; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 370; EPFP 3 (1923) 323; --Vinca rosea L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 (1759) 944. Native of Madagascar. Now pantropic in cultivation and naturalized. Photos
    • var. roseus. Thoroughly established in many parts of the Philippines, often very abundant along sandy seashores. 

Centrostemma Decne. = Hoya

Cerbera L.

Photos
  1. Cerbera manghas L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 208; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 330; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 160. Tropical Asia through Malesia to tropical Australia and Polynesia. Common along the seashore throughout the Philippines. Photos
  2. Cerbera odollam Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. (1791) 193; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 369; EPFP 3 (1923) 330; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 163. S India and Sri Lanka to the western Pacific Isls., in Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. Mostly riverine at low elevation. Photos

Ceropegia L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2017

Photos
  1. Ceropegia cumingiana Decne., Prodr. 8 (1844) 643; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --Type: Cuming 447 (L, iso), Philippines. --Ceropegia merrillii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 565; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 344; --Type: Merrill 4863 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Bued River, Oct/Nov-1905. Tropical Australia, New Guinea (Papua), Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, Mountain Province, Benguet, MINDORO, MINDANAO: Agusan, Lanao del Norte. Low and medium elevation secondary growths. Photos
  2. Ceropegia merrilliana Bruyns, South African Journal of Botany 112 (2017) 430; --Brachystelma merrillii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 566; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --Type: Merrill 680 (US, iso), Culion. Dry open valley, Feb-1903. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, CULION, SEMIRARA. Dry open grasslands at low elevation. Very rare or local. 

Chilocarpus Blume

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser 28 August 2017

Photos
  1. Chilocarpus denudatus Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1025; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 169; --Type from Java. India to New Guinea, Philippines. Photos
  2. Chilocarpus leytensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1453; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 321; --Type: Elmer 7359 (A, lecto; BO, E, G, K, NY, isolecto), Leyte: Leyte prov., Palo. S India, Nicobar Isls, Myanmar (Tenasserim), Thailand, Cambodia, S Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Anamba Isls), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea (Papua). LEYTE, BUCAS GRANDE. Low elevation primary forests.

Chonemorpha G.Don

Photos
  1. Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Perad. 11 (1929) 203; --Sleesen, Nova Guinea, new ser. 9 (1958) 344; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 179; --Echites fragrans Moon, Cat. Pl. Ceylon (1824) 20; --Chonemorpha rheedei Ridl., Agric. Bull. Straits Fed. Malay States 10 (1911) 146; --Type: Rheede, Hort. Malab. 9 (1689) t. 5, 6, nom. superfl. --Chonemorpha elliptica Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 121; --Tabernaemontana elliptica Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 115 (as ‘eliptica’), nom. illeg., auct. non Thunb.; --Chonemorpha blancoi Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 312; EPFP 3 (1923) 335; --Type: BS 1065 Ramos (GH, lecto; BO, K, NSW, NY, PNH, SING, US, isolecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso. India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, S China, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo (Brunei), Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (including Timor Leste). LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, PALAWAN. Low elevation forests. Photos
  2. Chonemorpha verrucosa (Blume) D.J.Middleton, Novon 3 (1993) 455; Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 181; --Rhynchodia verrucosa (Blume) Woodson, Sunyatsenia 3 (1836) 102; --Tabernaemontana verrucosa Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1029; --Type from Java. --Rhynchodia rhynchosperma (Wall.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 42 (1895) 173; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 333; --Echites rhynchospermus Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1 (1830) 43; --Type from Myanmar. --Chonemorpha elastica Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 81; --Type: FB 12351 Hutchinson (US, lecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga del Sur prov., Dumanguilas Bay. India, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Benguet, Cagayan, Cavite, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao. Low and medium elevation forests, ascending to 1500m in Benguet. 

Clemensia Schltr. non Merr. = Clemensiella = Hoya

Clemensiella = Hoya

Conchophyllum Blume

No Photos
  1. Conchophyllum elmeri Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 561; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 351; --Type: Elmer 10670 (NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Open moist woods, 3000ft, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Thickets or forests, c. 900m.

Cosmostigma Wight

No Photos
  1. Cosmostigma philippinense Schltr. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 542; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 356; --Type: BS 1072 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Bosoboso, Jul-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Thickets or forests at medium elevation.

Cryptostegia R.Br. [Not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2017

Photos

  1. Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br., Bot. Reg. (1819) t. 435; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 376; EPFP 3 (1923) 340. Native of Madagascar, now pantropic in cultivation. Planted for ornamental purposes.

Cynanchum L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 28 August 2017

Photos
  1. Cynanchum loheri Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 120; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 341; --Liede, Blumea 44 (1999) 483; --Type: Loher 4053 = Vidal 3311 (K, lecto; US, isolecto), “Luzon Central”. Borneo (Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Isabela (San Mariano), Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna (Calauan), Quezon (Dolores), MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Abra de Ilog), CULION, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low and medium elevation thickets, ascending to 1200m. 
  2. Cynanchum ovalifolium Wight, Contr. (1834) 57; --Liede, Blumea 44 (1999) 485; --Type from Penang, Malaysia. --Cynanchum luzonicum Schltr. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 538; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 341; --Type: Merrill 7702 (US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., May-1911. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Krakatau, Borneo (Mabul Isl), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas (Halmahera, Ambon), New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Benguet, Zambales, Bulacan, Aurora (photos), Pangasinan (photos), PANAY. Low and medium elevation thickets. Photos
  3. Cynanchum physocarpum Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 121; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 341; --Liede, Blumea 44 (1999) 487; --Type: Warburg 13766 (B, lost?). --Cynanchum schlechterianum Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 121; --Type: Warburg 13003 (B, lost?), Luzon: Quezon prov., Sampaloc. --Cynanchum denigratum Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3549, not validly published, no Latin description; --Voucher: Elmer 15636 (L, holo; BM, FI, G, NA, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., lowlands near Irosin, Mt Bulusan, Apr-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN, LUZON: Ilocos Norte (photos by Pelser & Barcelona), Laguna, Quezon, Albay, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), CATANDUANES, CALAMIANES (BICAWAYAN). Thickets and degraded forests at low elevation including near seashore. Fl. September-July. Photos
  4. Cynanchum suluense Schltr. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 539; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 342; --Type: Merriill 5401. Endemic to the Philippines. SULU.
  5. Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. Mant. Pl. 2 (1771) 392; --Bassi, Bononiensi Sci. Inst. Acad. Comment. 6 (Opusc.) (1768) 17; --Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R.Br. -- Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. (1810) 464; --Euphorbia viminalis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 452. Photos
    • ssp. brunonianum (Wight & Arn.) Meve & Liede, Kew Bull. 67 (2012) 754; --Sarcostemma viminale ssp. brunonianum (Wight & Arn.) P.I.Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5(1) (1992) 63;--Sarcostemma brunonianum Wight & Arn. in Wight, Contrib. Bot. Ind. (1834) 59; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 342. India, Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Bataan, Quezon, Batangas, PANAY: Iloilo (photos by John Clifton Mayer), PALAWAN (Quezon, Lipuun). Thickets, 0-1200m.

Dischidia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017

Photos
  1. Dischidia acutifolia Maingay ex Hook.f, Fl. Brit. India 4 (1883) 51; --Rintz, Blumea 26 (1980) 101. --Dischidia brachystele Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 555; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347.
    • ssp. acutifolia. Thailand, Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal. Forests at medium elevation. 
  2. Dischidia boholensis (Schltr.) Livshultz, Taxon 52 (2003) 597; --Dolichostegia boholensis Schltr., Fedde, Repert. 13 (1915) 554; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 356; --Type: BS 1693 McGregor (B, holo, lost; US, iso), Bohol: Guindulman? (Livshultz 2003), Jul-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. BOHOL. Cliff near the sea.
  3. Dischidia cleistantha Livshultz, Novon 13 (2003) 89; --Type: Merrill 11639 (K, holo; P, US, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet (Kapangan, Tublay), POLILLO (Karlangan), BURDEOS (Botanan), CATANDUANES (San Domingo River), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, BASILAN (Malamam), JOLO. Photos
  4. Dischidia clemensiae Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 556; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347; --Type: Clemens 362. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur. Thickets or forests, c. 600m. 
  5. Dischidia elmeri Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 556; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347; --Type: Elmer 10759 (BISH, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, hanging epiphyte in dense forest, 3750ft, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya). Thickets or forests, c. 1130m. Photos
  6. Dischidia gibbifera Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 555; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Type: BS 12011 Ramos (B, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., San Antonio, Aug-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Forests at low and medium elevation. 
  7. Dischidia hirsuta (Blume) Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 632; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Leptostemma hirsutum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 1058; --Type from Java. Myanmar across Malesia from Peninsular Malaysia to New Guinea. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO: Oriental Mindoro, PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar, Victoria Mtns), MASBATE, PANAY, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Low to medium elevation forests, sometimes in mangroves. Photos
  8. Dischidia lancifolia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 330; EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Type: BS 30374 Ramos, Catanduanes: back of Calolbong, on tree trunks in damp forests, low elevation, 10-Dec-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan, Irosin), CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Epiphytic in damp forests at low elevation, up to 530m. Photos
  9. Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr., Interp. Rumph. Herb. Amb. (1917) 437; --Rintz, Blumea 26 (1980) 92; --Collyris major Vahl, Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6 (1810) 110. NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Australia, Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Philippines. Locally common on trees along the coast and up to 1000m on coastal mountains, forming large clusters on the branches. The pitcher leaves are commonly inhabited by ants. Photos 
  10. Dischidia merrillii Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 299; EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3560; --Type: Merrill 3904 (NY, iso), Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Arayat, near summit of slightly developed mossy forest, Oct-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Mountain Province, Benguet (Baguio), Pampanga (Mt Arayat), Bataan, Zambales, Rizal, Quezon (Lucban), Camarines, MINDORO, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Misamis. Chiefly in the mossy forest, 800-1800m. Photos
  11. Dischidia myrtillus Schltr. Philipp. J. Sci. 1(Suppl. 4) (1906) 299. Endemic to the Philippines. Also considered a synonym of Dischidia ruscifolia Decne. ex Becc. Photos.
  12. Dischidia nummularia R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Hol. (1810) 461; --Rintz, Blumea 26 (1980) 98. --Dischidia copelandii Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 298; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347; --Type: Copeland 512 (B, US), Mindanao: Davao, pendant in large bunches, Mar-1904. --Dischidia pubicaulis Schltr., not published, based on Elmer 10481 (B), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, May-1909. NE India, Myanmar, Indochina, Thailand, Australia and Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Pinamalayan, NEGROS: Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao, Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). In thickets and forests at low elevation. Photos
  13. Dischidia oiantha Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 127; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Type: Warburg 12252, Luzon: Cagayan prov., Enrile. --Dischidia irosinensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3556, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 17226 (syn) and 15797 (syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin, in woods, 1250ft. Apr-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Apayao, Ifugao, Benguet (Twin Peaks, near Baguio), Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Quezon, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), POLILLO, MINDORO, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation, often along the seashore. Photos
  14. Dischidia platyphylla Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 300; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3563; --Type: Copeland 338 (B, holo?; NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Laguna, Quezon (Lucban), POLILLO, LEYTE (Palo), MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao, Surigao, SULU. On trees at low elevation, often along the seashore. 
  15. Dischidia punctata (Blume) Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 632; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Rintz, Blumea 26 (1980) 93; --Leptostemma punctatum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 1058. --Dischidia joloensis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 557; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Type: Merrill 5327 (B, iso?), Jolo: Mt Dajo, 11-Oct-1906. S Thailand, Malesia: Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, SW Philippines. JOLO. In thickets, c. 550m. 
  16. Dischidia purpurea Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 17 (1904) 39; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 348; --Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3563; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, PALAWAN (Quezon, TAMLANGON Is), LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo, Todaya, c. 1130m), Surigao. Epiphytic in medium elevation forests, ascending to 1200m. Photos
  17. Dischidia quinquangularis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 557; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 349; --Type: Copeland 555 (B), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Thickets or forests. 
  18. Dischidia rosea Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 300; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 349; --Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3563; --Type: Elmer 5838, Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, Benguet (Baguio). Forested ravines, at and above 1300m. 
  19. Dischidia ruscifolia Decne ex Becc., Malesia 2 (1886) 272; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 349; --Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3564. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet (Baguio), Cagayan, Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, SIBUYAN (Mt Giting-giting), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta). Mossy forests and on cliffs in damp primary forests, 300-1600m. Photos
  20. Dischidia saccata Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 127; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 349; --Type: Warburg 14384 (B). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Epiphytic in mangroves. 
  21. Dischidia tonsa Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 558; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 349; --Type: Merrill 7200 (B, US, iso), Busuanga, Sep-1910. --Dischidia palawanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3561; --Type: Elmer 13101 (MO, NY, iso), Palawan: Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. BUSUANGA, CULION, PALAWAN (Thumb Peak, Talimbobog), PANAY. Photos
  22. Dischidia vidalii Becc., Malesia 2 (1886) 272, in nota; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 349. --Dischidia pectenoides Pearson, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 35 (1902) 377; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 381. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, Laguna. Epiphytic on dead or dying bamboo (Schizostachyum) at low elevation. Photos.

Uncertain names needing validation. 

  1. Dischidia apoensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3551, not validly published, no Latin descr; --Type: Elmer 10659 (MO, NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Steep ravine along Sibulan River, 3000ft, May-1909. Endemic to the Philippines? MINDANAO.
  2. Dischidia diphylla Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3553, not validly published, no Latin descr; --Type: Elmer 15870 (MO, NA, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin, in woods, 1250 ft. Apr-1916. Endemic to the Philippines? LUZON: Sorsogon.
  3. Dischidia livida Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3558, not validly published, no Latin descr; --Type: Elmer 16591 (MO, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin, in woods, 1000 ft, Apr/Sep-1916. Endemic to the Philippines? LUZON: Sorsogon.
  4. Dischidia palawanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3561, not validly published, no Latin descr; --Type: Elmer 13101 (MO, NY, iso), Palawan: Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), in thickets and woodlands, c. 250 ft, Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines? PALAWAN.
  5. Dischidia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3564, not validly published, no Latin descr; --Type: Elmer 15809 (NA, NY, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin, in damp hemp fields, 1000 ft, Apr-1916. Endemic to the Philippines? LUZON: Sorsogon.
  6. Dischidia striata Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3566, not validly published, no Latin descr., auct. non Schltr.; --Type: Elmer 10481 (syn), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, in forest, 4000ft, May-1909; --Elmer 16874 (syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin, in forests, 1000ft, Aug-1916. LUZON: Sorsogon.
  7. Dischidia sylvestris Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3568, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Type: Elmer 11401(NY, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. In forest, 6500ft, Aug-1909. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forest, 1800-2000m.

Dischidiopsis Schltr.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2017

Photos
  1. Dischidiopsis carinata Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 558; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 349; --Type: Bolster 227. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Low elevation thickets or forests. 
  2. Dischidiopsis copelandii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 559, in nota; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 350. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Low elevation thickets or forests. 
  3. Dischidiopsis imberbis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 559; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 350; --Type: BS 10728 R.C. McGregor (B), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Claveria, Aug-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan. Lowland thickets or forests. 
  4. Dischidiopsis incrassata Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 559; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 350. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, BASILAN. Thickets along streams at low elevation. 
  5. Dischidiopsis luzonica Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 560; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 350. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Pangasinan, Laguna, Cavite. Epiphytic in low and medium elevation forests, sometimes on coconut trunks. Photos
  6. Dischidiopsis mariae Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 560; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 350; --Type: Clemens s.n., Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao. Thickets or forests, c. 600m. 
  7. Dischidiopsis parasitica (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 317; EPFP 3 (1923) 350; --Marsdenia parasitica Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 120, as ‘parasita’; ed. 2 (1845) 86; ed. 3, 1 (1877) 156; --Type: Non extant, “Illustrative” specimen: Merrill Sp. Blancoanae 693 (US), Luzon: Rizal prov., Pasay, epiphytic on Mangifera indica L., Dec-1914. --Conchophyllum merrillii Schltr. ex Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 380; --Type: Merrill 7441 (L, iso), Luzon: Manila and vicinity, Jan/Feb-1911. --Dischidiopsis philippinensis Schltr. in Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. (1904) 128; --Type: Merrill 972 (NY, iso), Lubang: Apr-1903. LUZON: Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, LUBANG. Epiphytic (not parasitic) in lowland thickets and forests. 

Dolichostegia Schltr. = Dischidia

Dorystephania Warb. = Sarcolobus

Dregea E.Mey.

No Photos
  1. Dregea volubilis (L.f.) Benth. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1883) 46; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 354; --Lu et al., Fl. Taiwan ed. 2 (1998) 227; --Wattakaka volubilis (L.f.) Stapf, Bot. Mag. 149 (1923) t. 8976; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 46; --Asclepias volubilis L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 170. India to Java, Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN, CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES, LUZON: Mountain Province, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Batangas, Zambales, LUBANG. Low elevation thickets, also along seashores and riverine forests. 

Eriostemma (Schltr.) Kloppenb. & Gilding = Hoya

Finlaysonia Wall.

No Photos
  1. Finlaysonia obovata Wall., Pl. As. Rar. 2 (1831) 48; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 339. India through Peninsular Malaysia to the Moluccas. LUZON: Zambales, Tayabas, PANAY, LEYTE. Thickets along the seashore in swampy places, often in mangrove along tidal streams. 

Genianthus Hook.f.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 4 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Genianthus ellipticus (Blume) Bakh.f. in C.A.Backer, Bekn. Fl. Java 8a(173) (1949) 26; --Leptadenia elliptica Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826) 1066; --Type: from Java (lecto). --Genianthus syringifolius (Schltr.) Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4 (1939) 60. --Secamone syringifolia Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 538; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --P.I.Forst. & Liddle, Austral. Syst. Bot. 7 (1994) 515; --Type: Witford 1399 (B, lost; US, lecto), Mindoro: Bongabong-River, 1906. Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Rizal, MINDORO, POLILLO, SAMAR. Damp primary forests at low elevation.
  2. Genianthus rectinervis (Schltr.) Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4 (1939) 61; --Secamone rectinervis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 537; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --Type: Clemens 988 (M), Mindanao. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Rizal, Laguna, Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Lanao. Primary forests at low and medium elevation.

Gomphocarpus R.Br. [Not native]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 August 2017

Photos

  1. Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) W.T.Aiton, Hortus Kew (1811) 80; --Asclepias fruticosa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 216. Native of Africa, Arabia. Now naturalized in North America, Hawaii. Apparently naturalized in MINDANAO. Photos 

Gymnanthera R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 29 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Gymnanthera oblonga (Burm.f.) P.S.Green, Kew Bull. 47 (1992) 333; --Jasminum oblongum Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 6. --Gymnanthera pedunculata (Miq.) Fern.-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 132, excl. syn. Llanos; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 340; --Dicerolepis pedunculata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2 (1857) 466. Lesser Sunda Isls (Flores), Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Thickets behind mangroves.  

Gymnema R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Gymnema calycinum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 540; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 344; --Type: Vanoverbergh 1214. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province. Thickets or secondary growth, c.1650m. 
  2. Gymnema cumingii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 541; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 344; --Type: Cuming 939. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Albay, Sorsogon. Probably in thickets or secondary growth at low elevation. 
  3. Gymnema inodorum (Lour.) Decne., Prodr. 8 (1844) 551; --Cynanchum inodorum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 166. --Gymnema tingens Roxb. ex Spreng., Syst. 1 (1825) 844; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 378; EPFP 3 (1923) 344; --Asclepias tingens Roxb., Hort. Beng. (1814) 21, nom. illeg., nom. nud., Pl. Coromandel. 3 (1819) 34. India to Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Low elevation thickets and secondary growth.
  4. Gymnema mariae Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 540; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 344; --Type: M.S. Clemens 757. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Lanao. Forest, c. 650m. 
  5. Gymnema piperi Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 539; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 344; --Type: Piper 485. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao. Thickets and secondary growth at low elevation, commonly along the seashore. 
  6. Gymnema schlechterianum Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 123; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 344. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Quezon. Lowland thickets. 
  7. Gymnema uncarioides Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 541; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 345; --Type: BS 8218 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya. Forests at low and medium elevation. 

Heterostemma Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2017

Photos
  1. Heterostemma angustilobum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 565; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 355; --Type: Elmer 10814 (GH, lecto; BM, G, K, L, NY, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, forests along Baruring River, 3000ft, Jun-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Thickets or forests, c. 900m. 
  2. Heterostemma cuspidatum Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 630; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 355; --Type: Cuming 1449 (P, lecto; BM, CGE, G, K, OXF, P, isolecto), Luzon: Batangas, 1841. --Stapelia quadrangula Blanco, Flora de Filipinas (1837) 202, nom. illeg., auct. non Forssk.; --Type: Merrill species Blancoanae 807 (K, neo; L, BM, isoneo), Luzon: Batangas, Feb-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN (Puerto Princesa, Tagbaros, km 17). Low elevation secondary forests and thickets. Photos
  3. Heterostemma herbertii Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3074; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 355; --Type: Elmer 17661 (BO, lecto; A, BM, C, GH, K, L, NY, P, S, U, US, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Laguna Prov., Mt. Makiling. --Heterostemma lucbanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938), nom. illeg., nom. nud. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Primary forests, c. 450m.
  4. Heterostemma manillense Schauer in Walpers, Nova acta physico-medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curiosum 19 (Suppl. 1) (1843) 365; --Type: Meyen s.n., Luzon: Hacienda Hal-hali. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.

Hoya R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 1 September 2017

Photos
  1. Hoya alagensis Kloppenb., Fraterna 1(3, Suppl.) (1990) I; Philip. Hoya Sp. ed. 3 (1996) 29; --Type: Merrill 5542 (B), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Alag River, 150m, Nov-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Hoya albida Kloppenb., Siar, Cajano & Carandang, Hoya New 1 (2013) 3; --Hoya albida Kloppenb., Siar, Cajano & Carandang, Malaysian Hoya species (2012), nom. inval.; --Type: CAHUP 71808 (holo), Luzon: Quezon Prov., Polillo island, 6-May-2010. Endemic to the Philippines. POLILLO. Photos
  3. Hoya alwitriana Kloppenb., Siar, Guevarra & Carandang, Asklepios 114 (2012) 16; --Type: CAHUP 71843 (CAHUP, holo). Endemic to the Philippines.
  4. Hoya amrita Kloppenb., Siar & Ferreras, Asklepios 110 (2011) 27; --Type: U. Ferreras UF 750 (CAHUP, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon, Davao del Sur. Photos
  5. Hoya anncajanoae Kloppenb. & Siar, Asia Life Sci. 17(1) (2008) 62; --Type: S.V. Siar & M.A.O. Cajano 5923 (CAHUP, holo & iso), Luzon: Laguna Prov., Mun. Siniloan, Brgy. Kapatalan, c. 300 m, 29-Nov-2006. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Photos
  6. Hoya apoensis Kloppenb. & Siar., Asklepios 110 (2011) 25; --Type: Cult. 71718 (CAHUP, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
    • var. sagittarius Kloppenb., Siar & Ferreras, Hoya New 1 (2013) 3; --Type: U. Ferreras 737 (CAHUP, holo); --Hoya apoensis var. sagittarius Kloppenb., Siar & Ferreras, Fraterna 23(4) (2010) 5, nom. inval. Endemic to the Philippines.
  7. Hoya aurantiaca Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, Asia Life Sci. 18(1) (2009) 140; --Type: S.V. Siar & M.A.O. Cajano 5962 (CAHUP, holo), Luzon: Laguna Prov., Mun. Siniloan, Brgy. Kapatalan, c. 300m, 19-Jul-2007. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna.
  8. Hoya aurigueana Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, J. Nat. Stud. 11 (1&2) (2012) 36; --Type: 71848 (CAHUP, holo). LUZON: Quezon province. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  9. Hoya bandongii Kloppenb. & Ferreras, Fraterna 24(4) (2011) 9; --Type: 14596 (PUH, holo). Endemic to the Philippines.
  10. Hoya bella Hook. Bot. Mag. 74 (1848) t. 4402. India, Myanmar, ?Philippines. LUZON. Photos
  11. Hoya benguetensis Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 301; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 351; --Kloppenb., Philip. Hoya Sp. ed. 3 (1996) 33; --Type: Elmer 5979 (B), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, SAMAR (Mt Concord, Mt Sohoton). Thickets or forests, 1200-1600m in Benguet. Photos
  12. Hoya benitotanii Kloppenb., Gard. Bull. Singapore 61(2) (2010) 330; --Type: Kloppenburg 2010-6 (UC). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  13. Hoya benstoneana Kloppenb., Siar, Guevarra & Carandang, J. Nat. Stud. 11 (1&2) (2012) 37; --Type: 71849 (CAHUP, holo). Endemic to the Philippines.
  14. Hoya benvergarae Kloppenb. & Siar, Asia Life Sci. 17 (2008) 58; --Type: S.V. Siar & M.A.O. Cajano 5932 (CAHUP 70357, holo), Luzon: Laguna, Mun. Los Baños, Brgy. Batong Malaki, cultivated at Dr. Ben Vergara's Greenhouse, originally collected from Dolores, Quezon Province, c. 30m, 21-Feb-2007. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Photos
  15. Hoya bicknellii Kloppenb., Fraterna 12(4) (1999) 12; --Type: Bicknell UC 1470 (UC, holo), Cebu: Matutinao (Kawasan) Bidian. Endemic to the Philippines. CEBU.
  16. Hoya bicolensis Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, J. Nat. Stud. 11 (1&2) (2012) 40; --Hoya bicolensis Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, Malaysian Hoya species (2012), nom. inval.; --Hoya bicolensis Kloppenb. & Siar, Philippine Hoya Species: A Monograph, pp. 86-88., nom. inval.; --Type: JP 1994 (UC). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Bicol region. Photos
  17. Hoya bicolor Kloppenb., Fraterna 16(1) (2003) 1; --Type: 67050 (CAHUP, holo), type material from UPLB plant breeding program, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon Prov., Mt. Banahaw. Photos
  18. Hoya bilobata Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 301; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 351; --Type: Copeland 420 (BS), Mindanao: Davao, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. On trees at low elevation. Photos 
  19. Hoya blashernaezii Kloppenb., Fraterna 12(1) (1999) 9; --Type: Blas Hernaez s.n. (BISH 97093, holo), Catanduanes: cult. in Hawaii. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Low elevation. Photos
    • subsp. blashernaezii.
    • subsp. siariae (Kloppenb.) Kloppenb., Hoya New 2(1) (2014) 50; --Hoya siariae Kloppenb., Fraterna 15(3) (2002) 1; --Type: 200012 (CAHUP, holo).
  20. Hoya bordenii Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 302; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 351; --Type: Borden 1213 (B), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, 650m, Jun-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Pangasinan, Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Bulacan, Cavite, Quezon, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). On trees in low and medium elevation forests. 
  21. Hoya brittonii Kloppenb., Fraterna 5(4) (1992) t. 1; --Type: PNH 19519 (=B.B. Britton 256), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Calapan, Badoc, May-1953. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO.
  22. Hoya buotii Kloppenb., Fraterna 15(4) (2002) 1; --Type: CAHUP 67049 (holo). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Photos
  23. Hoya burtoniae Kloppenb., Hoyan 12(2:2) (1990) i; --Type: Loher s.n. (UC), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Sep-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Montalban). Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  24. Hoya butleriana Kloppenb., Siar, Guevarra & Carandang, Asklepios 115 (2013) 15; --Type: CAHUP 71851 (holo). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  25. Hoya cagayanensis Schltr. ex C.M.Burton, Hoyan 8(4.2) (1987) b; --Type: BS 7374 Ramos (B), Luzon: Cagayan prov., Mar-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan, Aurora (Casiguran), Quezon (Umiray), Laguna, PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar). Photos
  26. Hoya camphorifolia Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip., 1 (1904) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 351; --Type: Warburg s.n., Luzon: Quezon prov., Sampaloc. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO. From sea level to 1200m in riverine forests, secondary and primary forests. Photos
  27. Hoya cardiophylla Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 310; EPFP 3 (1923) 351; --Type: BS 35160 Ramos & Pascasio, Dinagat: on tree trunks at low elevation. 13-May-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE: Leyte (Ormoc, Antilao River), DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Bukidnon (Mt Kitanglad), Surigao del Norte. On trees at low elevation in Leyte, Dinagat, and Surigao del Norte.
  28. Hoya carmelae Kloppenb., Siar & Ferreras, Fraterna 23(4) (2010) 9; --Type: U. Ferreras 782 (PUH 14598, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela Prov., Mun. Maconacon, Brgy. Reina Mercedes, Mt. Pinalinaw, 1100 m.
  29. Hoya carnosa (L.f.) R.Br., Asclepiadeae (1810) 16; --Asclepias carnosa L.f., Suppl. Pl. (1782) 170. China to Vietnam, Japan to Taiwan, Philippines. Photos 
  30. Hoya celata Kloppenb., Siar, G.Mend., Cajano, Guevarra & Carandang, Asklepios 116 (2013) 42; --Malaysian Hoya species (2012), nom. inval.; --Type: G. Mendoza 1-010 (CAHUP 71810, holo), cult. Luzon: Quezon Prov., Mauban, 27-Jan-2010. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Photos
  31. Hoya cembra Kloppenb., Fraterna 1(3, Suppl.) (1990) II; --Type: Merrill 5650 (B), type sheet of Hoya eucantha Schltr., ined., Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Alag River, 300m, Nov-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Alag River). Photos
  32. Hoya chiekoae Kloppenb., Ferreras & G.Mend., Hoya New 1 (2013) 17; --Hoya chiekoae Kloppenb., Ferreras & G.Mend., Malaysian Hoya species (2012), nom. inval.; --Type: U. Ferreras 901 (PHU 14628; holo), cult. Luzon: Aurora Prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Aurora.
  33. Hoya ciliata Elmer ex C.M.Burton. Hoyan 9(4:2) (1988) i; --Eriostemma ciliata (Elmer ex C.M.Burton) Kloppenb. & Gilding, Fraterna 14(2) (2001). Endemic to the Philippines.  Photos
  34. Hoya corazoniae Kloppenb., Siar & Ferreras. Fraterna 23(4) (2010) 15; --Type: U. Ferreras 800 (PUH 14601, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur.
  35. Hoya coriacea Blume Bijdr. (1826) 1063; ---Kloppenb., Philip. Hoya Sp. ed. 3 (1996) 55. Java, Philippines. PALAWAN (SW coast). Photos
    • subsp. coriacea. --Hoya angustisepala C.M.Burton, Hoyan 8 (1987) b; --Kloppenb., Philip. Hoya Sp. ed. 3 (1996) 31; --Type: Elmer 10829 (B, holo, lost?), Mindanao: Mt Apo (Todaya), along Sibulan River, 3000 ft. --Hoya mindanaensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3584, not validly published, no Latin descr. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11, as Hoya angustisepala).
  36. Hoya crassicaulis Elmer ex Kloppenb., Fraterna 8(3) (1995) 10; Philip. Hoya Sp. ed. 3 (1996) 57; --Type: Elmer 14440 (syn), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), 250ft, Oct-1915; Merrill 4082 (US, syn) and 11591 (syn), Weber 1003 (syn), Bolster 393 (syn), Elmer 14440 (syn), 16718, (syn). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  37. Hoya cumingiana Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 636; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 351; --Type: Cuming 1480. Java, Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Bataan, Rizal, Camarines, MINDORO, PABELLONES off N PALAWAN, TICAO. Chiefly on limestone cliffs and boulders in open places, 0-1600m. Photos 
  38. Hoya curtisii King & Gamble, Fl. Mal. Pen. 2 (1903) 564. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  39. Hoya cutis-porcelana W.Suarez, J.R.Sahagun & Aurigue, J. Nat. Stud. 12(1) (2013) 14; --Type: 254882 (PNH, holo), cult. BILIRAN, SAMAR. 7m. Photos
  40. Hoya davidcummingii Kloppenb., Fraterna 8(2) (1995) 10; --Type: D. Cumming 9 (BISH, holo; UC), Luzon: Sorsogon, Lake Bulusan, c. 500ft. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Photos
  41. Hoya densifolia Turcz., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 21, 1 (1848) 261. --Type from Java. Photos
  42. Hoya diversifolia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 16 (1826/1827) 1064. --Hoya panchoi Kloppenb., Hoyan 10(1:2) (1988) 1; --P.I.Forst. & Liddle, Austral. Syst. Bot. 7 (1994) 512. --Hoya bulusanensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3577, not validly published, no Latin descr; --Type: Elmer 15937 (BO, isolecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), steep forested ravine at 1500 ft. elevation, May-1916. Indo-China to Malesia, Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Forests,  c. 450-550m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11, as Hoya panchoi). Photos
    • ssp. diversifolia.
    • ssp. el-nidicus (Kloppenb.) Kloppenb., Fraterna 14(1) (2001) 13; --Hoya el-nidicus Kloppenb., Fraterna 1991(4, Suppl.) (1991) I; --Type: J.V. Pancho s.n. (CAHUP, holo), Palawan: El Nido, Aug-1988. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  43. Hoya edanoi C.M.Burton, Hoyan 12(2:2) (1990) i; --Type: BS 11655 Edaño (A), Negros: Negros Oriental prov., Lake Balinsasayao. Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS. Photos
  44. Hoya elmeri Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15 (1929) 258; --Type from Malaysia. --Hoya mindorensis Schltr. ssp. superba Kloppenb., Fraterna 18(3) (2005) 1; --Type: A. Wayman s.n. (UC, holo), Luzon, cult. in USA. Malaysia (Sabah), Philippines. LUZON. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Rodda et al. 2014).
  45. Hoya estrellaensis T.Green & Kloppenb., Asklepios 114 (2012) 20; --Type: ex hort. TG 93121 (BISH 752594, holo), Palawan: Narra, Estrella Waterfall. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  46. Hoya ferrerasii Kloppenb. & Siar. Fraterna 23(4) (2010) 21; --Type: U. Ferreras 741 (CAHUP 71723, holo), Mindanao: Davao del Sur, Mun. Kiblawan, Brgy. Kimlawis. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur.
  47. Hoya fischeriana Warb., Perkins Frag. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 129; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 352; --Type: Warburg 11955, Luzon: Isabela prov., Malunu. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Aurora, MINDORO: Oriental Mindoro, BILIRAN, DINAGAT, MINDANAO: Davao, Surigao. On trees at low elevation.
  48. Hoya fitchii Kloppenb., Fraterna 22(4) (2009) 16; --Type: 20096 (UC), cult. in Hawaii. Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  49. Hoya gigantanganensis Kloppenb., Fraterna 5(4) (1992) t. II; --Type: PNH 36787 Kondo & Edaño, Leyte: Gigantangan, Mar-1957. LEYTE. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  50. Hoya golamcoana Kloppenb., Fraterna 1991(3, Suppl.) (1991) II; Philip. Hoya Sp. Suppl. (1991) II, as 'golamcoiana'. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN.
  51. Hoya gracilis Schltr. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40(3, Beibl. 92) (1908) 14; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 352. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY. Primary forests on ridges extending into the mossy forest, c. 1000m. 
  52. Hoya greenii Kloppenb., Fraterna 8(2) (1995) 12; --Type: T. Green 7 (BISH), Mindanao: Mt Apo, trail to hot springs lake, 4000ft., Oct-1993. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO. Photos
  53. Hoya halconensis Schltr. ex Kloppenb., Fraterna 1(3, Suppl.) (1990) III; --Type: Merrill 5674 (B), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, 900m., Nov-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  54. Hoya heuschkeliana Kloppenb., Hoyan 11(1:2) (1989) i; --Type: Pancho 2175 (CAHUP), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Lake Bulusan, c. 50m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
    • var. cajanoae Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 20(4) (2007) 9; --Type: Blas F. Hernaez & Mary Ann Cajano (CAPHUP 56574, holo). Photos
  55. Hoya ilagiorum Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, Asia Life Sci. 20(2) (2011) 264 [as 'ilagii']; --Types: S.V. Siar and M.A.O. Cajano 6150 (CAHUP 71750, holo; CAHUP 71751, iso), Mt. Mabilog, Nagcarlan, Laguna, 300 m., 19-Sep-2009. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna and Quezon. Photos
  56. Hoya imbricata Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 637; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 352. Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines.
    • var. imbricata. --Hoya pseudomaxima Koord., PJS 15 (1919) Bot. 331; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 353. LUZON: Camarines, Mountain Province, Rizal, Laguna, BUSUANGA, PALAWAN (Puerto Princesa: St Paul Bay, Sabang beach, Tagbaros, km 17 to Roxas, Quezon, Sinadan, Tamlangon). On tree trunks at low and medium elevation. Photos
    • var. basisubcordata Koord., PJS 15 (1919) 264; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 352. LUZON: Sorsogon, BILIRAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Davao. On trees at low elevation.
  57. Hoya imperialis Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 32 (1846) t. 68; --Type from Borneo. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. In mangroves. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
    •  forma alba T.Green. Fraterna 18(1) (2005) 6-7. Endemic to the Philippines.
  58. Hoya incrassata Warb. in Perkins Frag, Fl. Philip. (1904) 130; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 352; --Type: Warburg 12998, 12997 cotype, Luzon: Quezon prov., Sampaloc. --Hoya reticulata Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 311; EPFP 3 (1923) 353, syn. non valid. --Hoya orientalis P.T.Li, Bull. Bot. Res. (1984) 121. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, POLILLO, MINDORO, BUSUANGA, PANAY, CAMIGUIN, MINDANAO: Agusan, Surigao. On trees as well as swampy thickets at low elevation. Photos
  59. Hoya isabelaensis Kloppenb., Siar & Ferreras, Fraterna 24(4) (2011) 24; --Type: U. Ferreras 783 (PUH 14599, holo; CAHUP, PNH, iso), Isabela prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela.
  60. Hoya josephinae J.Cabrera & H.Mohr, Schlechteriana 3 (2013) 1; --Type: R. Schneider s.n. (MJG, holo), Mindoro, Mindoro Oriental, Mt. Malasimbo, 19-Mar-2009. MINDORO.
  61. Hoya juannguoana Kloppenb., Fraterna 15(1) (2002) 1, as "juanngoiana"; --Type: Kloppenburg 2001 (UC, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN: St. Paul's Underground River. Photos
  62. Hoya kanlaonensis Kloppenb, Siar & Ferreras, Fraterna 23(4) (2010) 24; --Type: U. Ferreras 771 (PUH 14600, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. NEGROS: Negros Oriental, city of Bago, Brgy. Mailum, 1223m. Photos
  63. Hoya kentiana C.M.Burton, Hoyan 12 (3:2) (1991) iv. Endemic to the Philippines.
  64. Hoya krohniana Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 22(4) (2009) 9; --Type: 70365 (CAHUP, holo). Endemic to the Philippines.
  65. Hoya lacunosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 16 (1827) 1063. Borneo, Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON. Photos
  66. Hoya landgrantensis Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, Asia Life Sci. 18(1) (2009) 147; --Type: S.V. Siar & M.A.O. Cajano 5963 (CAHUP 70617, holo; CAHUP 70618, iso), Luzon: Laguna Prov., Mun. Siniloan, Brgy. Kapatalan, c. 300m. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. 
  67. Hoya lazaroi Kloppenb. & Siar, Asia Life Sci. 17(1) (2008) 66; --Type: S.V. Siar & M.A.O. Cajano 5942 (CAHUP 70361, holo), Luzon: cult. from Quezon Prov., Mt. Banahaw. LUZON: Quezon. Photos
  68. Hoya leytensis Elmer ex C.M.Burton, Hoyan 10 (1988) i; --Type: Elmer 7261, Leyte: Palo, on tree branches, near sea-level, Jan-1906; --Hoya leytensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3582, nom. inval., no Latin descr. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE: Leyte (Dagami, Cabalian, Lake Bito). Photos
  69. Hoya linavergarae Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 19(4) (2006) 11, as "linavergariae"; --Type: CAHUP 68632 (holo). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  70. Hoya loheri Kloppenb., Fraterna 1991(3, Suppl.) (1991) III ; --Type: Loher s.n. (UC, holo), Luzon: Rizal Prov., Montalban, Mt Paningtingan, 15-Mar-1915. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Montalban, Mt Paningtingan), Quezon.  
  71. Hoya lucardenasiana Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, Asia Life Sci. 18(1) (2009) 144; --Type: S.V. Siar & M.A.O. Cajano 5961 (CAHUP 70615, holo; CAHUP 70616, iso), Luzon: Laguna Prov., Mun. Siniloan, Brgy. Kapatalan, c. 300m, 19-Jul-2017. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Photos
  72. Hoya lucyae Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 19(4) (2006) 8; --Type: Bicknell s.n. (CAHUP 68633, holo), Jan-1998. Endemic to the Philippines.
  73. Hoya mcgregorii Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 302; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 352; --Type: McGregor 191 (B), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River, Apr/May-1905. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Baco River, Bongabong), PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar = Thumb Peak), SAMAR (Mt Capotoan). On trees at low elevation in the type locality.
  74. Hoya madulidii Kloppenb., Fraterna 1(3, Suppl.) (1990) IV; --Eriostemma madulidii (Kloppenb.) Kloppenb. & Gilding, Fraterna 14(2) (2001) 4; --Type: Bolster 357 (B, holo; UC), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Caningag Creek,  400ft. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ifugao, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Mt Mantalingahan), JOLO, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao Oriental (Mati), Surigao del Norte. Photos
  75. Hoya mariae (Schltr.) L.Wanntorp & Meve, Willdenowia 41 (2011) 98; --Clemensiella mariae (Schltr.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 566; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 356; --Clemensia mariae Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 543. --Hoya viracensis Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 19(4) (2006) 5. --Clemensiella dischidioides Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 356, in obs., pro syn. Clemensiella mariae Schltr; --Type: Elmer 15801 (NY?, cited by Merrill as 16801). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON:  Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan. Jul-1916. LUZON (Laguna, Sorsogon), CATANDUANES, LEYTE,  MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley). Forests at medium elevation. Photos
  76. Hoya meliflua (Blanco) Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 318; EPFP 3 (1923) 352; --Stapelia meliflua Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 202; --Type: Merrill 2565 (US, neo), Luzon: Bataan, Mt Marivales, Lamao River, 11 to 14-Jun-1903. --Hoya luzonica Schltr. in K.Schum. & Laut., Nacht. Fl. Deutsch Sudsee (1904) 364; in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 130; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 380; --Type: Warburg 13765 (B, lecto; BM, isolecto), Luzon: Zambales Prov. --Hoya davaoensis Kloppenb., Hoya New 1(2) (2013) 9; --Type: Ramos & Edano 49272 (UC, holo; B, P, iso), Mindanao: Mati, Mar/Apr-1927. Indonesia, Philippines. LUZON: Apayao, La Union, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, MINDANAO, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Taytay, Talimbobog), PANAY, NEGROS, LEYTE. On trees at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  77. Hoya memoria Kloppenb., Fraterna 17(4) (2004) 2; --Type: 81074 (UC, holo), Luzon: Manila Memorial Garden, 1981. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Manila. Described from cultivated material? Photos
  78. Hoya merrillii Schltr. in Perkins Fragm. Fl. Philip. (1904) 1313; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 353; --Type: Merrill 2218 (B, A), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Pola, May-1903. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Nueva Vizcaya, Quezon, Cavite, Camarines, POLILLO, MINDORO, BOHOL, MINDANAO: Davao. On trees at low elevation. Photos
  79. Hoya migueldavidii Cabactulan, Rodda & Pimentel, PhytoKeys 80 (2017) 107; --Type: R. Pimentel s.n. (CMUH, holo; SING, iso), Mindanao: Bukidnon, Mount Kitanglad, 11-Aug-2016. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Cabactulan et al. 2017). Photos
  80. Hoya mindorensis Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 302; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 353; --Type: MacGregor 332 (B, lecto), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Baco River, Apr/May-1905. --Hoya mindorensis Schltr. ssp. mendozae Kloppenb. & Ferreras, Hoya New 2 (2014) 34; --Type: G. Mendoza GM45 (PUH, holo), Luzon: Laguna, Nagcarlan, Mt. Mabilog, 2-Oct-2013. Borneo, Philippines. LUZON, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental, NEGROS. On trees at low elevation. Conservation status: Data Deficient (Rodda et al. 2014). Photos
    • subsp. mindorensis.
  81. Hoya mitrata Kerr, Hooker's Icon. Pl. 35 (1940) t. 3406, nom. cons. --Hoya darwinii Loher, Gard. Chron. 47 (1910) 66; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 352; --Type: Loher 14574 (UC), Luzon: Mar/Apr-1909. Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Thailand, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Quezon, PANAY. Low or medium elevation forests. Photos
  82. Hoya monetteae T.Green, Fraterna 17(2) (2004) 10; --Type: T.Green 007 (BISH, holo), Palawan: Tumarbong River delta. Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines. PALAWAN.
  83. Hoya multiflora Blume, Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (Blume) (1823) 49; Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 16 (1827) 1064; --Centrostemma multiflorum (Blume) Decne., Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2 , 9 (1838) 272; --Merr., EPFP 3   (1923) 350. Myanmar, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines. BABUYAN ISLS, LUZON: Rizal (Mt Angilog, Antipolo, Bosoboso, San Andres), Laguna (Pakil, Liliw, Los Baños, Mt Makiling), Quezon (Mt Banahaw), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), POLILLO, MINDORO, MASBATE, TABLAS, PANAY, SAMAR, DINAGAT, SIARGAO, PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo), Davao Oriental (Mt Mayo). Epiphytic or pseudo-epiphytic on trees in primary forests at low and medium elevation. Photos.
  84. Hoya myrmecopa Kleijn & Donkelaar, Blumea 46(3) (2001) 477; --Type: Kleijn & Van Donkelaar ipps 8840 (L, holo). Sulawesi, Philippines. Photos
  85. Hoya obscura Elmer ex C.M.Burton, Hoyan 8 (1986) 15; --Type: Elmer 16719 (A, UC), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin (Mt Bulusan), Jul-1916. --Hoya gracilis Schltr. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 50 Beibl. 92 (1908) 14; --Merr., EPFP 2 (1923) 352. Sulawesi, Philippines. LUZON: Laguna (Mt Makiling), Quezon, Albay (Mt Malinao), Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY. In primary forests on ridges extending into the mossy forest, c.1000m. Photos
  86. Hoya odetteae Kloppenb., Fraterna 11 (1998) 8; --Type: (BISH, holo; PNH, UC, iso), Mindanao. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (E base of Mt Apo). Epiphytic along riverbank. Photos
  87. Hoya odorata Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 303; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 353; --Type: Merrill 3202 (B), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, mossy forest, 4200ft. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES, LUZON: Ifugao, Bataan, Rizal (Mt Paningtingan), Laguna (Mt Makiling), Sorsogon, PANAY, NEGROS: Negros Occidental (Mt Canlaon), Negros Oriental (Cuernos Mtns), CAMIGUIN. Mossy forests on ridges, 1200-2000m. Photos
  88. Hoya orientalis P.T.Li, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(1) (1984) 121; --Hoya reticulata Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 311, nom. illeg., auct. non Moon; EPFP 3 (1923) 353; --Type: BS 34530 Ramos & Pascasio, Mindanao: Surigao, swampy thickets at low elevation, 17-Apr-1919. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, MINDANAO: Surigao. Low elevation swampy thickets in Surigao.
  89. Hoya palawanica Schltr. ex Kloppenb.,Fraterna 1(3, Suppl.) (1990) V; --Type: Foxworthy 834 (B), Palawan: border of mangrove swamp, May-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. POLILLO (Karlogan), PALAWAN, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Hilong-hilong).
  90. Hoya panayensis Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 22(4) (2009) 13; --Type: R.C. McGregor 32378 (UC, holo). Endemic to the Philippines.
  91. Hoya paziae Kloppenb., Fraterna 1(3, Suppl.) (1990) VI; --Hoya eugeniodes Schltr., ined., --Type: Merrill 5618 (B), Mindoro: Mindoro Oriental prov., Mt Halcon, mossy forest, 900m, Nov-1906. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, MINDORO: Mindoro Oriental (Mt Halcon), PANAY: Antique (Mt Madya-as). Mossy forest, 900m on Mt Halcon. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  92. Hoya pentaphlebia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 330; EPFP 3 (1923) 353; --Type: BS 17411 Ramos (US), Samar: Cauayan Valley, in damp forest, Mar-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO: Pinamalayan, BILIRAN, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. Forests (including mangroves) at low elevation. Photos
  93. Hoya persicina Kloppenb., Siar, Guevarra, Carandang & Mendoza, J. Nat. Stud. 11 (1&2) (2012) 42; --Type: 71850 (CAHUP, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
    • ssp. percicina.
    • ssp. rosea Kloppenb., Guevarra, G.Mend. & Ferreras, J. Nat. Stud. 12(1) (2013) 25; --Type: 14623 (holo, PUH). LUZON: Quezon prov.
  94. Hoya pimenteliana Kloppenb., Fraterna 12 (1999) 7. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Twining on trees and shrubs at low elevations. Photos
  95. Hoya platycaulis Simonsson & Rodda, Asklepios 106 (2009) 15; --Type: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K, holo), Luzon: Laguna, from cultivated material, 10-Aug-2009. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, NEGROS (photos by R.A.A.B. Bustamante). Photos  
  96. Hoya polilloensis Kloppenb., Guevarra, G.Mend. & Ferreras, J. Nat. Stud. 12(1) (2013) 19; --Type: 14651 (PUH, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. POLILLO.
  97. Hoya pubicalyx Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 131; EPFP 3 (1923) 353; --Type: BS 19484 Ramos & Edaño, Luzon: Quezon prov., Mauban, on trees along streams in damp forest, 24-Jan-1913. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Mauban). Forest near the seashore. Photos
  98. Hoya querinoensis Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 20(4) (2007) 13; --Type: CAHUP 41946 M. Wayet (CAHUP, holo), 15-Sep-1988. Endemic to the Philippines.
  99. Hoya quinquenervia Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. 1 (1904) 132; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 353; --Type: Warburg 11956 (B), Luzon: Isabela prov., Malunu. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela (Malunu), Sorsogon. Forests at low and medium elevation. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  100. Hoya quisumbingii Kloppenb., Fraterna 5(4) (1992) t. III; --Type: PNH 79412 Quisumbing et al. (PNH), Batanes: Itbayat Is., Mar-1961. Endemic to the Philippines. BATANES. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  101. Hoya ramosii Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 20(4) (2007) 17; --Type: Ramos & Edano (PNH 75500, holo; UC, PRE, iso). Endemic to the Philippines.
  102. Hoya rizaliana Kloppenb., Fraterna 1991(4, Suppl.) (1991) IV ; --Type: Loher s.n., Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, Oct-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  103. Hoya rosarioae Kloppenb. & Siar, Hoya New 4 (2015) 3; --Type: S.V. Siar s.n. (CAHUP, holo), Catanduanes: 16-Mar-2007. Endemic to the Philippines. CATANDUANES. Photos
  104. Hoya ruscifolia Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 639; --Type: Callery s.n., Luzon: Igorrotes Mtns. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON.
  105. Hoya salmonea Kloppenb., Guevarra, G.Mend. & Ferreras, J. Nat. Stud. 12(1) (2013) 22; --Type: 14622 (PUH, holo). LUZON: Quezon prov. Endemic to the Philippines.
  106. Hoya samarensis Kloppenb. & Siar, Asklepios 113 (2012) 29; --Type: R.S. & G. Visayas (PNH 7304, holo), Samar: Western Samar, Peramas, Brg. Lokilokon, Mt. Malingon, 29-Oct-1993. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR.
  107. Hoya santiagoi Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 24(4) (2011) 29; --Type: M.M. Santiago (PNH 36315, holo), Bimangoan Yard, 24-Feb-1957. Endemic to the Philippines.
  108. Hoya schallertiae C.M.Burton, Hoyan 3(4) (1982) 96; --E.A.Mears s.n. (US 447593, holo), 11-Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines.
  109. Hoya soligamiana Kloppenb., Siar & Cajano, Asia Life Sci. 18(1) (2009) 151; --Type: S.V. Siar & M.A.O. Cajano 5868 (CAHUP 69916, holo; CAHUP 70619, iso). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Atimonan Municipality, c. 200 m. Photos
  110. Hoya stoneana Kloppenb. & Siar, Fraterna 19(4) (2006) 19, as "stoneiana"; --Type: (CAHUP 68634, holo). Endemic to the Philippines.
  111. Hoya surigaoensis Kloppenb., Siar & Nyhuus, Asklepios 107 (2010) 23; --Type: (CAHUP 71719, holo). Endemic to the Philippines. Photos
  112. Hoya tsangii C.M.Burton, Hoyan 9(4:2) (1988) i; --Type: Elmer 16340, Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Aug-1912. --Hoya angustifolia Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3572, not validly published, no Latin descr.;  --Vouchers: Elmer 16340, 16916, Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Irosin, Mt Bulusan, in dense woody tangles, 1000ft, Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte.
  113. Hoya unruhiana Kloppenb., Siar, G.Mend., Cajano & Carandang, Hoya New 1 (2013) 25; --Hoya unruhiana Kloppenb., Siar, G.Mend., Cajano & Carandang, Malaysian Hoya species (2012), nom. inval.; --Type: CAHUP 71807 (holo), Polillo: 6-May-2010. Endemic to the Philippines. POLILLO.
  114. Hoya valmayoriana Kloppenb., Guevarra & Carandang, J. Nat. Stud. 11 (1&2) (2012) 43; --Type: 71809 (CAHUP, holo), Luzon: Sorsogon province, ¾ km north of Lake Bulusan. Originally collected by David M. Cummings with his collection number DMC 1622. This is the clone IML 831 of the late David Liddle. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon. Photos
  115. Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1838) 128; --Sperlingia verticillata Vahl, Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6 (1810) 113. Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines. PALAWAN (obs. Danilo Tandang, 15-Jun-17).
  116. Hoya vicencioana Kloppenb., Siar, Cajano, Guevarra & Carandang, J. Nat. Stud. 11 (1&2) (2012) 46; --Type: 71842 (CAHUP, holo). Endemic to the Philippines.
  117. Hoya wayetii Kloppenb., Fraterna 6(2) (1993) 10; --Type: M. Wayet (CAHUP, holo), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Nov-1989. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  118. Hoya wibergiae Kloppenb., Fraterna 14(1) (2001) 5; --Type: Kloppenburg Hort. No. 951074 (UC, holo), Palawan: Estrella Falls area, cult. at Fresno (California). PALAWAN.

Invalidly published names:

  1. Hoya pubifera Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3588, not validly published, no Latin descr.; --Voucher: Elmer 16971 (L, NY), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan. Forests,  c. 1500ft, Aug-1916. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan). Forests, c. 450m.
  2. Hoya pulgarensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3589; --Eriostemma pulgarensis (Elmer) Kloppenb. & Gilding, Fraterna 14(2) (2001) 4, nom. inval. Endemic to the Philippines. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).

Ichnocarpus R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 August 2017

Photos
  1. Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T.Aiton, Hort. Kew ed. 2, 2 (1811) 69; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males, ser. 1, 18 (2007) 204; --Apocynum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 213; --Type from Sri Lanka. Photos
  2. Ichnocarpus volubilis (Lour.) Merr., PJS 21 (1922) 506; EPFP 3 (1923) 336; --Gardenia volubilis Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 148; --Type from Vietnam. --Echites caudatus Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 106, nom. illeg., auct. non L.; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 77; --Type: Not preserved. Merrill (1918) has designated Merrill Species Blancoanae 456 (A, K, L, MO, P) as illustrative specimen. --Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T.Aiton var. ovatifolius (A.DC.) Deb., Fl. Tripura State 2 (1983) 18; --Ichnocarpus ovatifolius A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 435; --Merr., Sp. Blancoanae (1918) 313; --Type: Cuming 1809 (BM, lecto; G, K, MO, OXF, TCD, W, iso), ‘Manila’. --Ichnocarpus navesii Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 21 (1884) 313, nom. nud. --Carruthersia daronensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1450; --Type: Elmer 11099 (K, lecto; BISH, BO, BP, E, L, Z, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao: Mt Apo, Todaya. --Toxocarpus makilingensis Elmer ex Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 336, nom. inval. (only in synonymy). Pakistan, India (including Nicobar Isls), Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, S China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea. BATANES and N LUZON to CORON, PALAWAN (Irawan, Tatanarom) and MINDANAO, in most islands and provinces. Often common. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests. 

Ischnostemma King & Gamble

No Photos
  1. Ischnostemma carnosum (R.Br.) Merr. & Rolfe, PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 121; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 378; EPFP 3 (1923) 342. Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Philippines, tropical Australia. LUZON: La Union, Bataan, Rizal, MINDANAO: Davao. Thickets near the seashore. 

Kibatalia G.Don

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Kibatalia arborea (Blume) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4 (1837) 86; --Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 226; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 43; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 211; --Kickxia arborea (Blume) Blume, Rumphia 4 (1849) 26 (as ‘Kixia’); --Hasseltia arborea Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1046; --Type from Java. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. PALAWAN (Mt Beaufort; SMHI 2170 (A, L)). Lowland forests.  
  2. Kibatalia blancoi (Rolfe ex Stapf) Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 309; EPFP 3 (1923) 334; Woodson, PJS 60 (1936)  221; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 47; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 211; --Kickxia blancoi Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 313; --Type: Illustration in Fernandez-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) pl. 428bis under the incorrect name of Kickxia arborea (lecto). --Kibatalia merrittii (Merr.) Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 220; --Kickxia merrittii Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 315; --Type: FB 11488 Merritt (K, lecto; US, isolecto), Mindoro. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Laguna, Batangas, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, LEYTE. In secondary and primary forests at low and medium elevation, to  1000m. 
  3. Kibatalia elmeri Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 223; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 53; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 216; --Kibatalia fragrans Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3694; --Type: Elmer 15934 (MO, holo; A, BM, BO, C, F, G, K, L, NY, P, PNH, U, US, W, Z, iso), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Laguna, Batangas, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Taytay), CATANDUANES. In secondary and primary forests, on hillsides and top of ridges. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11).
  4. Kibatalia gitingensis (Elmer) Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 216; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 57; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 216; --Vallaris gitingensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 70; EPFP 3 (1923) 339; --Kickxia gitingensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1455; --Type: Elmer 12203 (K, lecto; BM, BO, E, F, G, K, L, MO, NY, US, W, Z, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. --Vallaris angustifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 335; --Type: FB 10507 Curran (K, lecto), Luzon: Sorsogon prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, SIBUYAN, LEYTE. Hill forests to 525m.  
  5. Kibatalia longifolia Merr., PJS 17 (1921) 307; EPFP 3 (1923) 335, as "oblongifolia"; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 64;  --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 221; --Type: De Mesa 118 in FB 27534 (A, lecto), Mindanao: Davao del Sur prov., Sta Cruz, Balutakay. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao del Sur. 40m, probably in forest. Conservation status: Critically Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Kibatalia macgregorii (Elmer) Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 224; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 67; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 221; --Type: Elmer 12373 (K, lecto; A, BM, BO, BP, E, F, G, L, MICH, MO, NY, W, Z, isolecto), Sibuyan: Magallanes. Endemic to the Philippines. SIBUYAN. High elevation forests.  
  7. Kibatalia maingayi (Hook.f.) Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 213; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 69; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 223; --Vallaris maingayi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 651; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia. --Kibatalia daronensis (Elmer) Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 218; --Vallaris daronensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 70; EPFP 3 (1923) 339; --Holarrhena daronensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1455; --Type: Elmer 11912 (K, lecto; A, BISH, BM, BO, BP, E, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO: Misamis Occidental, Lanao del Sur (Lake Lanao), Davao (Mt Apo), Agusan. Forests up to 700m.  
  8. Kibatalia merrilliana Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 225; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 74; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 223; --Type: Wenzel 330 (US, holo; A, BM, F, G, GH, L, iso), Leyte: Leyte prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LEYTE, SAMAR. Forests at low elevation. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  9. Kibatalia puberula Merr., PJS 30 (1926) 423; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 77; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 227; --Type: BS 43767 McGregor (UC, lecto; NY, isolecto), Samar. Endemic to the Philippines. SAMAR. Dipterocarp forests or river banks, elevation 100-250m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  10. Kibatalia stenopetala Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 308; EPFP 3 (1923) 335; --Rudjiman, Agric. Univ. Wageningen Pap. 86-5 (1987) 80; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 227; --Type: BS 34691 Ramos & Pascasio (A, lecto; BM, BO, K, L, P, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov. --Kibatalia luzonensis Woodson, PJS 60 (1936) 218; --Type: BS 75041 Rivera & Duyag (UC, lecto), Luzon: Laguna prov., Majayjay. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, NE MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte, DINAGAT. Low elevation (c. 100m) along streams, to medium elevation forests to 1000m. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11). Photos

Kopsia Blume

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 30 August 2017

Photos
  1. Kopsia arborea Blume, Catalogus Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 13; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 235; --Type from Java. --Kopsia longiflora Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 29 (1905) 47; EPFP 3 (1923) 330; --Type: FB 611 Borden (PNH, holo, lost; US, lecto; BM, BO, F, K, NY, SING, UC? isolecto), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao River. --Kopsia laxinervia Merr., PJS 13 c (1918) Bot. 55; EPFP 3 (1923) 330; --Type: BS 28232 Fenix (A, lecto; BO, K, NY, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Apayao prov. India (Andaman and Nicobar Isls), S China, Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Apayao, Cagayan, Bataan, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, PALAWAN (Irawan, Addison Peak), ROMBLON, MINDANAO: Lanao, Bukidnon. In forests, thickets along streams, at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Kopsia flavida Blume, Rumphia 4 (1849) 28; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 240; --Type from New Guinea. --Kopsia grandiflora Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 436; EPFP 3 (1923) 330; --Type: BS 33691 Ramos & Edaño (US, lecto; A, K, P, US, isolecto), Luzon: Camarines Norte prov., Paracale. --Kentochrosia triangularis (Quisumb. & Merr.) Merr. & LM Perry, PJS 76 (1941) 21; --Kopsia triangularis Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 191; --Type: Wenzel 2648 (UC, holo; A, BO, BR, G, M, MO, Z, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov. Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Micronesia, Vanuatu. LUZON: Camarines Norte, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Lowland forests, along streams, possibly on ultramafics in Surigao del Norte.
  3. Kopsia fruticosa (Roxb.) A.DC. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 8 (1844) 352; --Cerbera fruticosa Roxb., Bot. Reg. 5 (1819) t. 391. Cultivated in Malesia. Not native in the Philippines. Naturalized in the Philippines?

Lepiniopsis Valeton

Photos

  1. Lepiniopsis ternatensis Valeton, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 12 (1895) 252; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 321; --Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 171; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 262; --Type from Moluccas (Ternate). --Lepiniopsis philippinensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1458; --Type: Elmer 12378 (GH, lecto; BISH, BO, L, NY, P, US, isolecto), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. LUZON: Camarines, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, MINDANAO: Agusan, Surigao. Low and medium elevation forests. Photos

Lochnera Rchb. = Catharanthus

Marsdenia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 August 2017

Photos
  1. Marsdenia pachyglossa (Schltr.) P.I.Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 8(5) (1995) 694; --Gymnema pachyglossum Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 295; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 344. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, MINDORO, PALAWAN, CAGAYAN DE SULU. Thickets and secondary growth at low elevation, commonly along the seashore. Photos
  2. Marsdenia pergulariiformis Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 133; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 354; --Type: Warburg 13002 (B). Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon. Probably from thickets at low elevation.  
  3. Marsdenia philippinensis Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 133; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 354. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna. Low elevation forests and thickets.  
  4. Marsdenia purpurella Fernando & Rodda, Gardens's Bulletin Singapore 65 (2013) 144; --Type: Fernando 2415 (LBC, holo; CAHUP, K, PNH, SING, iso), Luzon: Zambales prov., Candelaria, Malimlim area, in forest on serpentine soils, on gentle slope, 695 m elevation, 15°41’13”N 120°02’54”E, 19-Apr-2011. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Zambales, PALAWAN. Conservation status: Endangered (DAO 2017-11).
  5. Marsdenia tinctoria R.Br., Mem. Wern. Soc. 1 (1809) 30; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 354; --Lu et al., Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 4 (1998) 237. Tropical Africa and Asia. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Sorsogon, MINDORO, PANAY, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Low and medium elevation primary and secondary forests.  
  6. Marsdenia warburgii Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 133; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 354; --Type: Warburg 15026. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Cotabato. Low elevation thickets.  

Melodinus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

Photos
  1. Melodinus cumingii A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 330; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 320; --Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 152; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 276; --Type: Cuming 1831 (NY, lecto; BM, C, K, MO, P, isolecto), Luzon: ‘Manila’. --Melodinus cumingii var. apoensis (Elmer) Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 152; --Melodinus apoensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1459; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 320; --Type: Elmer 10793 (L, lecto; A, BISH, BM, E, G, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, Z, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon, PALAWAN (Mt Bloomfield), BOHOL, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Low to medium elevation forests, up to 1100m.
  2. Melodinus fusiformis Champ. ex Benth. in Hook., J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4 (1852) 332; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 278; --Type from China. --Melodinus lanceolatus Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 52; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 153; --Type: Loher 15057 (lecto UC; K, M, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov. China, Vietnam, Laos, Philippines. LUZON: Rizal. Photos
  3. Melodinus orientalis Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1026; --Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 154; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 279; --Type from Java. --Melodinus ellipticifolius (Quisumb. & Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris ii, 24 (1948) 128; --Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 153; --Willughbeia elliptifolia Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 194; --Type: Wenzel 2605 (UC, lecto; BR, G, GH, K, MO, Z, iso), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov., Placer. Forest, c. 150m, May-1927. --Melodinus luzoniensis (Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris ii, 24 (1948) 129; --Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 153; --Willughbeia luzoniensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 320; EPFP 3 (1923) 320; --Type: FB 12277 Curran (US, lecto), Luzon: Camarines Sur prov., Caramoan. --Melodinus globosus (Elmer) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris ii, 24 (1948) 129; --Chilocarpus globosus Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1454; --Type: Elmer 12229 (L, lecto; BM, BO, E, G, MO, NY, US, Z, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting. --Willughbeia pauciflora Merr., PJS 8 c (1913) Bot. 387; EPFP 3 (1923) 320; --Type: Wenzel 100 (BM, lecto; G, MO, US, iso), Leyte. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls (Bali). LUZON: Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, SIBUYAN, PANAY, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Surigao del Norte. Forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  4. Melodinus philippinensis A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 330; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 320; --Markgr., Blumea 19 (1971) 152; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 281; --Type: Cuming 1574 (E, lecto; A, BM, C, G, G-DC, K, L, M, MO, NY, P, isolecto), Mindoro. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDORO, PANAY (photos by Pelser & Barcelona). Probably from forests at low elevation. Photos

Micrechites Miq.

No Photos
  1. Micrechites serpyllifolius (Blume) Kosterm., Reinwardtia 5 (1960) 246; --Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P.I.Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 5 (1992) 539; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 39 (1994) 85; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 287; --Ficus serpyllifolia Blume, Bijdr. 1 (1825) 443; --Type from Java. --Micrechites schrieckii (van Heurck & Muell.-Arg.) Rolfe, J. Bot. 23 (1885) 214; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 332; --Ecdysanthera schrieckii van Heurck & Muell.-Arg. in van Heurck, Observ. Bot. (1871) 191; --Type: Cuming 910 (AWH, holo; A, BM, CGE, E, G, K, L, M, MEL, MO, P, W, iso), Luzon. --Trachelospermum philippinense Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 488; --Type: Elmer 9135 (K, lecto; A, BO, E, G, MO, NY, W, Z, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Sorsogon, NEGROS, LEYTE, CAMIGUIN, BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Davao. Forests at low and medium elevation. 

Neisosperma Raf. = Ochrosia

Nerium L. [Not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 7 July 2017

Photos

  1. Nerium oleander L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 209. --Nerium indicum Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8 (1768) No. 2; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 336. Cultivated. Photos

Ochrosia Juss.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Ochrosia ackeringae (Teysm. & Binn.) Miq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 138; --Markgr., Blumea 25 (1979) 238; --Hendrian, Blumea 49 (2004) 117; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 292; --Lactaria ackeringae Teysm. & Binn., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 29 (1867) 249; --Type from Sumatra, Bangka. --Ochrosia littoralis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 315; EPFP 3 (1923) 330; --Type: FB 7754 Curran & Merritt (PNH, holo, lost), Luzon: Batangas prov., Malabrigo. Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Isls, Australia. BABUYAN ISLS (DALUPIRI), LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Batangas, PALAWAN (Victoria Mtns), SAMAR, MINDANAO: Cotabato, SIBUTU. Lowland thickets and forests, often along the seashore, also on limestone. Photos
  2. Ochrosia apoensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1461; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 329; --Hendrian, Blumea 49 (2004) 109; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 294; --Neisosperma acuminata (Trimen ex Valeton) Fosb. & Sachet var. apoense (Elmer) Markgr., Blumea 25 (1979) 244; --Type: Elmer 10478 (L, lecto; A, NY, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Sorsogon, MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Dense primary forest, 800-1200m.  
  3. Ochrosia glomerata (Blume) Valeton, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 13, 2 (1895) 233; --Hendrian, Blumea 49 (2004) 112; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 297; --Neisosperma glomerata (Blume) Fosb. & Sachet, Addisonia sér. 2, 17 (1977) 29; --Markgr., Blumea 25 (1979) 246; --Pseudochrosia glomerata Blume, Mus. Bot. 1 (1850) 158; --Type from Papua New Guinea. Bonin Isls, Borneo (Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas and New Guinea. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, Batangas, Camarines Norte, MINDORO, PALAWAN, MASBATE, SIBUYAN, NEGROS, SAMAR, MINDANAO: Surigao. In forests at low and medium elevation, often common. Photos
  4. Ochrosia oppositifolia (Lam.) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 42 (1895) 156; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 330; --Hendrian, Blumea 49 (2004) 113; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 299; --Neisosperma oppositifolium (Lam.) Fosb. & Sachet, Adansonia sér. 2, 12 (1972) 629; --Markgr., Blumea 25 (1979) 243; --Cerbera oppositifolia Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 62; --Type: Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 2 (1741) 255, t. 84. --Paralstonia platyphylla Merr. ex E.E.Schneid., Bull. Bur. Forest. Philipp. Isls 14 (1916) 204, nom. nud. Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Andaman Isls, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, throughout the Pacific. BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Forests along the seashore. 

Parameria Benth. & Hook.f.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke, Rev. Sudamer. Bot. 6 (1940) 176; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 76; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 305; --Aegiphila laevigata Juss., Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 7 (1806) 76; --Type: de Jussieu Herbarium, Catalogue number 5037 (P, holo). --Parameria barbata (Blume) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 2 (1895) 162; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 331; --Parsonsia barbata Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1042; --Type from Java. --Echites torosus Llanos, Fragm. Pl. Philipp. (1851) 59, nom. illeg., auct. non Jacq.; --Neotype: Merrill Species Blancoanae 140 (US, neo; A, BM. BO, K, L, MO, P, W, iso). --Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex  G.Don) Benth. ex Kurz var. philippinensis (Radlk.) Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 207; --Parameria philippinensis Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer Akad. Wiss. München 14 (1884) 518; --Type: Cuming 1126 (M, lecto; AWH, BM, C, CGE, E, FR, G, K, L, MEL, MO, NY, P, UPS, W, iso). --Parameria vulneraria Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer Akad. Wiss. München 14 (1884) 519; --Type: Rothdauscher 1025 (M, lecto), Cebu, this now consisting of nothing more than branchlets; --Epitype: Rothdauscher 1029 (M, lecto), Cebu. Andaman Isls., Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, W Lesser Sunda Isls. LUZON: Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, Mindoro: Mindoro Mindoro Oriental (Bulalacao), CULION, PALAWAN (Irawan River Valley, Mt Beaufort, Iwahig, Trident Mines), PANAY: Antique, Iloilo, NEGROS: Negros Occidental, CEBU. In primary and secondary forests and thickets in the more seasonal parts of the archipelago, generally at low elevation. Photos

Parsonsia R.Br.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 23 October 2016

Photos
  1. Parsonsia alboflavescens (Dennst.) Mabb., Taxon 26 (1977) 532; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 42 (1997) 196; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 313; --Periploca alboflavescens Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab. (1818) 12, 23, 35; --Type: Illustration in Rheede, Hort. Malab. 9 (1689) t. 9. --Parsonsia confusa Merr., PJS 1 (1906) suppl. 118; EPFP 3 (1923) 338; --Echites spiralis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 110; --Type: untraced; Merrill Species Blancoanae 1014 (A, neo; BM, BO, GH, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, W, isoneo), Luzon: Bataan prov., Lamao. --Parsonsia cumingiana A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 402; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 374; EPFP 3 (1923) 45; --Type: Cuming 1490 (G-DC, lecto; K, P, W, isolecto), Luzon: Manila. --Parsonsia oblancifolia Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 335; EPFP 3 (1923) 339; --Type: BS 4723 Ramos (K, lecto), Luzon: Zambales prov., Candelaria. --Parsonsia magnifolia Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3071; --Type: Elmer 17867 (NY, lecto), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling. --Parsonsia oblongifolia Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 50; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 13477 (PNH, holo, lost; M, lecto), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban, (Mt) Paningtingan, Mar-1915. --Parsonsia aterinervia Elmer ex Merr., LPB 10 (1939) 3695; EPFP 3 (1923) 338, in obs.; --Type: Elmer 15707, Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin. S China, Taiwan, India and Sri Lanka and eastward to Indochina, throughout Malesia, Solomon Isls, N Australia. BATANES AND BABUYANES, LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Quezon, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDORO, SIBUYAN, PANAY, DINAGAT, BUCAS GRANDE. Low and medium elevation thickets and secondary forests, also near the seashore. Photos
  2. Parsonsia curvisepala K.Schum., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 9 (1888) 215; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 42 (1997) 207; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 321; --Type from Papua New Guinea. --Parsonsia apoensis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 9 c (1914) Bot. 384; EPFP 3 (1923) 338; --Aganosma apoensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1445; --Type: Elmer 10540 (K, lecto; A, BISH, BM, BO, E, G, GH, L, MO, NY, P, U, US, W, WRSL, Z, isolecto), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. --Parsonsia urdanetensis Elmer ex Merr., LPB 10 (1939) 3696, invalid name (no Latin descr.); EPFP 3 (1923) 338, nom. nud.; --Voucher: Elmer 13836 (A, BM, BO, GH, K, MO, NA, NY, US, W), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea. CATANDUANES, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao, Agusan del Norte. Low and medium elevation forests.  
  3. Parsonsia philippinensis Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 310; EPFP 3 (1923) 339; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 42 (1997) 223; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 331; --Type: BS 34585 Ramos & Pascasio (K, lecto; P, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Surigao del Norte prov. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, S Philippines. MINDANAO: Surigao. Thickets or forests along streams at low elevation.

Petalonema Schltr. non Gilg = Quisumbingia

Plumeria L. [Not native, not naturalized]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 22 July 2017

Photos

  1. Plumeria obtusa L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 210. Cultivated. Photos
  2. Plumeria rubra L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 209. --Plumeria acuminata Aiton, Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 2 (1811) 70; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 321. Cultivated. Photos

Quisumbingia Merr. = Sarcolobus

Rauvolfia L.

Photos
  1. Rauvolfia amsoniifolia A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 338; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 329; --Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 162; --Hendrian & D.J.Middleton, Blumea 44 (1999) 451; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 348; --Type: Cuming 1249 (G, lecto; BM, FR, G-DC, K, L, P, iso), Luzon: Cagayan prov. Philippines, S Sulawesi, E Nusa Tenggara, Timor, Tanimbar, Kei. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Isabela, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Batangas, Camarines, Albay, POLILLO, LUBANG, MINDORO: Mindoro Occidental (Urilan), Mindoro Oriental (Mansalay), MARINDUQUE (Sta. Cruz), MASBATE, MINDANAO: Bukidnon. Open areas, scrub, thickets, secondary forests, sometimes also along edge of coconut plantations, 0-500(-750)m.  
  2. Rauvolfia sumatrana Jack, Mal. Misc. 1, 5 (1820) 22; --Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 167; --Hendrian & D.J.Middleton, Blumea 44 (1999) 462; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 356; --Type: Untraced, neotype from W Sumatra. --Rauvolfia samarensis Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 316; EPFP 3 (1923) 329; --Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 165; --Type: Merrill 5233 (L, lecto; BO, P, US, iso), Samar. --Rauvolfia palawanensis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1462; --Type: Elmer 12591 (BM, lecto; A, BISH, G, GH, L, NY, P, U, US, iso), Palawan. Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Sarawak, Sabah, Kalimantan), Philippines, Sulawesi, Java, Nusa Tenggara, Moluccas. LUZON: Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), PALAWAN (Roxas, Ibangley, Mt Beaufort, Addison Peak), PANAY: Capiz (Mt Jamindan), BILIRAN (Mt Suiro), LEYTE (Cabalian), SAMAR (Laoang, Mt Sohoton), MINDANAO: Agusan del Norte (Mt Urdaneta), SAMAL. Usually In relatively open areas, scrub, secondary forests, coastal forests, etc. although also recorded from primary lowland (dipterocarp, limestone) and montane forests. Mostly from 0-100m, recorded to as high as 1600m in certain parts of Malesia. Photos
  3. Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1 (1888) 768; --Markgr., Blumea 30 (1984) 160; --Hendrian & D.J.Middleton, Blumea 44 (1999) 464; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 358; --Dissolena verticillata Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 137; --Type from Canton, China. --Rauvolfia membranacea Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 449; EPFP 3 (1923) 329; --Type: BS 33214 Ramos (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; A, BM, BO, L, P, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov. --Rauvolfia loheri Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 50; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 12500 (PNH, holo, lost; K, lecto; M, UC, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Montalban. Jun-1909. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S China, Taiwan, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sabah), the Philippines, Sulawesi, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara. LUZON: Ilocos Norte (Mt Nagapatan), Benguet (Agno River), Bataan (Mt Mariveles), Rizal. In open areas, lowland and montane rainforests. 

Rauwolfia Plumier = Rauvolfia

Rhynchodia Benth. = Chonemorpha

Sarcolobus R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 August 2017

Photos
  1. Sarcolobus carinatus Wall., As. Res. 7 (1816) 570. India, Myanmar, Thailand. Also elsewhere in SE Asia? LUZON: Aurora. In mangrove. Photos
  2. Sarcolobus globosus Wall., As. Res. 12 (1818) 568.
    • ssp. peregrinus (Blanco) Rintz, Blumea 26 (1980) 76; --Sarcolobus peregrinus (Blanco) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 564; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 345; --Asclepias peregrina Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 207. Vietnam, Mentawi to Borneo, Philippines, Moluccas to New Guinea. LUZON: Bataan, Tayabas, PALAWAN (Puerto Princesa, Barangay San Vicente), LEYTE, MINDANAO. Tidal streams along edge of mangroves. 
  3. Sarcolobus luzonensis (Warb.) P.I.Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot. 6 (1993) 352; --Dorystephania luzonensis Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 123; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 345. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Isabela, Rizal, Bataan, Quezon. Low elevation streams subjected to periodic flashfloods, associated with Homonoia riparia and similar types of stenophyllous rheophytes, growing in crevices of rock ledges and boulders. Photos
  4. Sarcolobus merrillii (Schltr.) Omlor, Gen. Revis. Marsdenieae (1998) 135; --Quisumbingia merrillii (Schltr.) Merr., Philip. J. Sc. 60 (1936) 33; --Petalonema merrillii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 544; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 356; --Schlechterianthus merrillii (Schltr.) Quisumb., PJS 41 (1930) 343. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Thickets about limestone cliffs, 1200-1600m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11, as Quisumbingia merrillii).

Sarcostemma R.Br. = Cynanchum

Schlechterianthus Quisumb. = Quisumbingia

Secamone R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 August 2017

Photos
  1. Secamone elliptica R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland (1810) 464; --Type from Australia. --Secamone attenuata Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 501; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 342; --Type: Cuming 1536 (P, lecto; BM, E, G, K, MO, UPS, isolecto), Philippines. --Secamone multiflora Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 501; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 342; --Type: Cuming 1284 (P, lecto; BM, E, G, GOET, K, L, MO, UPS, W), Philippines. Tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, Philippines. LUZON: Batangas, Benguet, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Mountain Province, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, MINDORO, ROMBLON, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Thickets at low and medium elevation, ascending to 1000m. Photos

Excluded:

  1. Secamone urdanetensis Elmer ex Tsiang, Sunyatsenia 4 (1939) 59; --Type: Elmer 13585 (BO, holo; L, NY, Z), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte prov., Mt Urdaneta. Aug-1912. Not Secamone (Klackenberg 1992).

Streptocaulon Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 31 August 2017

Photos
  1. Streptocaulon cumingii (Turcz.) Fernandez-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 132; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 340; --Triplolepis cumingii Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(1) (1848) 251; --Type: Cuming 1025 (MW?), Luzon: Pangasinan. --Streptocaulon corymbosum (Elmer) Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3594; --Anodendron corymbosum Elmer, LPB 2 (1908) 512; --Type: Elmer 8468 (PNH, holo, lost?; G, K, iso), Luzon. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Rizal, Laguna, CEBU. Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation.
  2. Streptocaulon wallichii Wight, Contr. Bot. India (1834) 65; --Type: Not from the Philippines. --Streptocaulon baumii Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 496; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 377; EPFP 3 (1923) 340; --Type: Baum & Perrottet (P, holo, lost?), "Manilla"; Baum 1832/02/08 (P, neo, possibly holo). Indo-China to Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Sur, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Quezon, Albay, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN (Aborlan: Mt Apis, Talakaigan River). Thickets and secondary forests at low elevation. Common. Photos

Strophanthus DC.

Edited by James V. LaFrankie & Pieter B. Pelser, 22 April 2016

Photos
  1. Strophanthus caudatus (L.) Kurz, Forest Fl. Burma 2 (1877) 192; J. As. Soc. Beng. 46, 2 (1877) 257; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 362; --Echites caudatus L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 52; --Type from Java. --Strophanthus cumingii A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 418; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 374; EPFP 3 (1923) 336; --Type: Cuming 1218 (G, lecto; L, NY, P, isolecto), Luzon: Manila. --Strophanthus dichotomus var. luzoniensis S.Vidal, Sinopsis Gen. Pl. Leños. Filip. (1883) 1181; --Type: Illustration t. 67 in Vidal, Sinopsis Gen. Pl. Leños. Filip. (1883). --Strophanthus erectus Merr., PJS 3 c (1908) Bot. 261; --Type: Merrill 695 (NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Palawan: Puerto Princesa. --Strophanthus letei Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 484; --Type: Lete 263 (K, lecto), Luzon: La Union prov., San Fernando. Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea (Papua). LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Abra, La Union, Cagayan, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Sorsogon, PALAWAN, NEGROS, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Davao. Thickets and forests at low and medium elevation. Photos
  2. Strophanthus singaporianus (Wall. ex G.Don) Gilg in Engl. Monog. Afr. Pfl. 7 (1903) 11; --Cercocoma singaporiana Wall. ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 7 (1837) 83; --Type from Singapore. Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Singapore, Philippines. PALAWAN (Narra; Ridsdale 1715).

Tabernaemontana L.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

Photos
  1. Tabernaemontana cordata Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 337; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Leeuwenberg, Rev. Tabernaemontana 1 (1991) 136; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 375; --Ervatamia cordata (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 548; --Type: Weber 1125 (G, lecto; A, E, F, K, NSW, isolecto), Mindanao: Agusan del Norte, Cabadbaran, in clearings, c. 15m, Apr-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Agusan, Surigao. Low elevation thickets, old clearings, etc. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  2. Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack, Malay. Misc. 2, 7 (1822) 80; --Leeuwenberg, Rev. Tabernaemontana 1 (1991) 165; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 379; --Pagiantha macrocarpa (Jack) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 546; --Ervatamia macrocarpa (Jack) Merr., J. Arnold Arb. 33 (1952) 246; --Type from Sumatra. --Pagiantha megacarpa (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 546; --Tabernaemontana megacarpa Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 318; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Type: RS Williams 2179 (NY, lecto; GH, K, US, isolecto), Mindanao: Zamboanga, Sax River. --Tabernaemontana plumeriifolia (Elmer) Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 326; --Ervatamia plumeriifolia (Elmer) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’] 220; --Pagiantha plumeriifolia (Elmer) Markgr., Mitt. Bot. Staatsamml. München 1 (1950) 29; --Voacanga plumeriifolia Elmer, LPB 1 (1908) 333; --Type: Elmer 7502 (G, lecto; A, BO, E, K, L, Z, isolecto), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban. S Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, LUZON: Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, Sorsogon, POLILLO, PALAWAN (Quezon, Lipuun), BASILAN, MINDANAO: Zamboanga, Misamis, Lanao. Low and medium elevation primary and secondary forests. Photos
  3. Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 7 (1806) 529; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 371; EPFP 3 (1923) 325; --Leeuwenberg, Rev. Tabernaemontana 1 (1991) 169; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 380; --Pagiantha pandacaqui (Poir.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 546; --Ervatamia  pandacaqui (Elmer) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’] 220; --Type: Sonnerat s.n. (P-LA, lecto; P, isolecto), Luzon: near Manila. --Tabernaemontana biflora Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1463; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 323; --Ervatamia biflora (Elmer) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’] 220; --Type: Elmer 10657 (G, lecto; A, BISH, BM, BO, E, HBG, K, L, MO, NY, US, W, Z, iso), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya. --Tabernaemontana brachybotrys Merr., PJS 29 (1926) 483; --Ervatamia brachybotrys (Merr) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’] 220; --Type: BS 43257 Ramos (K, lecto; A, BO, G, P, UC, US, iso), Bohol. --Tabernaemontana caudata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 316; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Ervatamia merrilliana Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 548; --Type: FB 14025 (US, lecto; NSW, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mt Bulangao. --Tabernaemontana congestiflora Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1464; --Type: Elmer 12564 (F, lecto; A, BO, E, G, K, L, NY, P, US, W, Z, iso), Sibuyan: Mt Giting-giting, Magallanes (=Magdiwang). --Tabernaemontana cumingiana A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 373; --Ervatamia cumingiana (A.DC.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 547; --Type: Cuming 604 (G-DC, lecto; A, BM, CGE, E, K, L, M, MO, NY, P, W, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Calawang (=Calauan). --Tabernaemontana ecarinata Merr., PJS 14 (1919) 450; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Type BS 33022 Ramos (K, lecto; P, US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., between Bangui and Claveria. --Tabernaemontana hexagona Merr., PJS 10 (1915) Bot. 66; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Ervatamia hexagona (Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’] 220; --Type: BS 21241 Escritor (K, lecto; US, iso), Panay: Capiz prov. --Tabernaemontana polygama Blanco, Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 82; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 326; --Ervatamia polygama (Blanco) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 548; --Type: Untraced; Merrill Species Blancoanae 243 (K, neo; A, BM, BO, GH, L, MO, NY, P, W, WAG, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., near Mandaloyon (=Mandaluyong). --Tabernaemontana laurifolia Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 114, nom. illeg., auct. non L. (1753); --Type: Merrill Species Blancoanae 266 (L, neo; A, BM, BO, F, K, MO, NSW, NY, P, W, isoneo), Luzon: Bulacan prov., Angat. --Tabernaemontana linearifolia Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 317; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Ervatamia linearifolia (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 548; --Type: FB 10945 Curran (K, lecto; US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Mankayan. --Tabernaemontana mindanaensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 67; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Type: BS 14930 Tarrosa & Almagro (PNH, holo, lost), Mindanao: Sultan Kudarat prov., Kraan; BS 11653 Robinson (E, neo; BO, F, iso), Mindanao: North Cotabato prov., Reina Regente. --Ervatamia mindorensis (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 548; --Tabernaemontana mindorensis Merr., PJS 20 (1922) 434; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 325; --Type: BS 39577 (NY, lecto; A, BO, K, iso), Mindoro: Mindoro Occidental prov., Paluan. --Tabernaemontana mucronata Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 318; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 325; --Ervatamia mucronata (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 548; --Type: FB 304 Gammill (NY, lecto; BM, K, US, iso), Guimaras: Guimaras prov., Nagaba. --Pagiantha oligantha (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 546; --Ervatamia oligantha (Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’] 220; --Tabernaemontana oligantha Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 68; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 325; --Type: Merrill Philipp. Pl. 1621 (leg. Ramos) (L, lecto; BM, BO, G, GH, MO, NSW, NY, P, PNH, SING, US, WAG, iso), Samar: Cauayan Valley. --Tabernaemontana puberula Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 319; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 371; --Type: Merrill 2746 (US, lecto; BM, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov. --Tabernaemontana semperflorens Perr., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 3 (1824) 147; --Type: Perrottet s.n. (G, lecto; L, iso), Mindanao: Zamboanga. --Pagiantha subglobosa (Merr.) Markgr., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 12 (1935) 547; --Ervatamia subglobosa (Merr.) Pichon, Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27 (1949 [‘1948’] 220; --Tabernaemontana subglobosa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 242; Fl. Manila (1912) 371; EPFP 3 (1923) 326; --Type: Merrill 2511 (NY, lecto; GH, MO, SING, US, iso), Luzon: Bataan prov., Mt Mariveles, Lamao River. S China, Taiwan, Thailand, Java, Borneo (Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi, Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, N and E parts of Australia, Micronesia. In the Philippines common in most islands and provinces. Photos
  4. Tabernaemontana rostrata Wall., Bot. Reg. 15 (1829) t. 1273; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 388; --Type from Myanmar. Andaman and Nicobar Isls, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines. 
  5. Tabernaemontana ternifolia D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 9 (2005) 387; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 389; --Type: SMHI 215 Ridsdale (L, holo; PNH, iso), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Beaufort, west spur, 815m. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Stunted montane rainforest and open disturbed areas, 815-1500m.  

Cultivated, not naturalized: 

  1. Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 4 (1819) 427; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 371; EPFP 3 (1923) 324; --Leeuwenberg, Rev. Tabernaemontana 1 (1991) 153; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 378; --Nerium divaricatum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 209; --Ervatamia divaricata (L.) Burkill, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 10 (1925) 320; --Type from a cultivated plant from Sri Lanka. Native of tropical Asia, now pantropic in cultivation. Photos

Telosma Coville

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017

Photos
  1. Telosma angustiloba (Warb.) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 243; EPFP 3 (1923) 355; --Pergularia angustiloba Warb., Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1 (1904) 134; --Type: Cuming 1334, Luzon: Cagayan prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Cagayan.
  2. Telosma cordata (Burm.f.) Merr., PJS 19 (1921) 372; EPFP 3 (1923) 355; --Asclepias cordata Burm.f., Fl. Indica (1768) 72. --Telosma odoratissima (Lour.) Coville, Contr. US Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 384; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 379; --Cynanchum odoratissimum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 166. Not native to Philippines. Cultivated, not naturalized.
  3. Telosma filipes (Schltr.) Rahman & Wilcock, Blumea 34 (1990) 519; --Pergularia filipes Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 135; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 356, under synonymy of Telosma procumbens; --Type: Warburg 13767, Luzon: Pampanga prov., Mt Arayat. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Pampanga, NEGROS. Also considered a synonym of Telosma procumbens.
  4. Telosma procumbens (Blanco) Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 243; Fl. Manila (1912) 379; EPFP 3 (1923) 356; --Pergularia procumbens Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 201. China to Vietnam, Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte to Sorsogon, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Talimbong, Brooke’s Point: Barangay Amat, Macagua), CUYO, NEGROS, BILIRAN, LEYTE, BASILAN, MINDANAO. Thickets and forests at low elevation. Photos

Thevetia L. = Cascabela p.p.

Toxocarpus Wight & Arn.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Toxocarpus batanensis Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 46; --Type: Hatusima 28634. --?Ichnocarpus volubilis (Lour.) sensu Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 336, excluding cited plants from Batan. Endemic to the Philippines. BATAN. A frequent climber in littoral thickets. According to Hatusima (l.c.)  “This may be a species from BATAN Islands identified by E.D. Merrill…with Ichnocarpus volubilis Merr. …somewhat resembles T. rubricaulis Elmer from LUZON, but differs from it by its much broader leaves with fewer lateral nerves and reticulated undersurfaces, and its larger follicles”. 
  2. Toxocarpus glaucus Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 505; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --Type: Cuming 1571. --Toxocarpus gracilis Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 506; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --Type: Cuming 1559, Mindoro. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON; Ilocos Norte, Tayabas, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Mt Pulgar =Thumb Peak). Low elevation forests or thickets.  
  3. Toxocarpus loheri Schltr. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 122; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --Type: Loher 4032. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Abra, Rizal, Laguna. Low and medium elevation forests.  
  4. Toxocarpus merrillii Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 295; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --Type: Merrill 2810. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal, Laguna, LEYTE. Low elevation secondary forests.  
  5. Toxocarpus rubricaulis Elmer, LPB 8 (1919) 3075; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 343; --P.I.Forst. & Liddle, Austral. Syst. Bot. 7 (1994) 516; --Type: Elmer 18297 (BO, iso), Luzon: Laguna prov., Mt Makiling, Jun/Jul-1917. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna. Low elevation secondary forests. 

Trachelospermum Lem.

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos 
  1. Trachelospermum vanoverberghii Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) Bot. 96; EPFP 3 (1923) Bot. 333; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 394; --Type: Vanoverbergh 1230 (P, lecto), Luzon: Mountain Province. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet, Pampanga, Rizal. Thickets and forested ravines, 800-1600m. 

Tylophora R.Br.

[Also considered a synonym of Vincetoxicum (Liede-Schumann et al. 2012), but here kept separate until new combinations in Vincetoxicum are made for the Philippine Tylophora species]

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017

Photos
  1. Tylophora angustifolia Schltr., in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 124; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 345; --Type: BS 7043 Ramos. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Lepanto, Rizal. Thickets at low and medium elevation.  
  2. Tylophora brevipes (Turcz.) Fernandez-Villar, Novis. App. (1880) 134; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 345; --Amblyoglossum brevipes Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 25(2) (1852) 311; --Type: Cuming 1431. --Tylophora hybostemma Warb. in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 125; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --Type: Warburg 13770, Luzon: Zambales prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Zambales, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Quezon: Ampaplot). Thickets at low elevation.  
  3. Tylophora clemensiae Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 562; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --Type: Clemens 529. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Sorsogon, CATANDUANES, MINDANAO: Lanao. Thickets at low and medium elevation. 
  4. Tylophora elmeri Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 296; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --P.I.Forst. & Liddle, Austral. Syst. Bot. 7 (1994) 515; --Type: Elmer 5980 (BO, NY, US, iso), Luzon: Benguet prov., Baguio, Mar-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Mountain Province, Benguet. Thickets, c. 1300m.  
  5. Tylophora glauciramea Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 562; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --Type: Merrill 4165. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Tayabas, BANTON, SEMIRARA, ROMBLON, CATANDUANES, PANAY, PALAWAN. Thickets along the seashore.
  6. Tylophora hispida Decne., in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 610; --Hatusima, Mem. Fac. Agr. Kagoshima Univ. 5 (1966) 46. S China, Ryukyus, Taiwan, Philippines. BATAN: Mt Iraya, E slope. Open thicket, 100m. Locally rare.
  7. Tylophora joloensis Schltr., in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 126; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --Type: Warburg 14956 (B). Endemic to the Philippines. JOLO. Probably in thickets at low elevation.  
  8. Tylophora lancilimba Merr., PJS 27 (1925) 53; EPFP 4 (1925) 254; --Type: Loher 14834, Luzon: Rizal prov., Aug-1914. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Rizal.
  9. Tylophora luzonica Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 296; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --Type: Elmer 5585 (NY, iso), Luzon: La Union prov., Bauang, Feb-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: La Union, Benguet, Cagayan. Thickets, ascending to 1200m.
  10. Tylophora parviflora (Merr.) Meve, Omlor & Liede, Syst. Geogr. Pl. 72 (2002) 28; --Telosma parviflora Merr., PJS 17 (1920) 312; EPFP 3 (1923) 355; --Type: Ramos & Pascasio BS 35011 (K, holo), Siargao, May-1919. --Telosma crispipetala Elmer, LPB 10 (1938) 3595, nom. inval. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Laguna, Quezon, MINDORO, SIARGAO. Low elevation forests.  
  11. Tylophora perrottetiana Decne. in DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 609; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --Vincetoxicum perrottetianum (Decne.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 425. --Tylophora merrillii Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 297; --Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 379; --Type: Merrill 3648 (NY, US, iso), Luzon: Rizal prov., Caloocan, roadside thickets near sea-level, Nov-1903. --Tylophora rizalensis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 563; --Type: BS 12532 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon:  Rizal prov., Nov/Dec-1910. --Tylophora exilis Schltr., in Perkins, Frag. Fl. Philip. (1904) 125; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 346; --Type: Warburg 13551, 13552. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, La Union, Mountain Province, Benguet, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, PALAWAN (Quezon: Sinadan). Thickets at low elevation.  
  12. Tylophora ramosii Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 563; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347; --Type: BS 7700 Ramos (US, iso), Luzon: Ilocos Norte prov., Mar-1909.  Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province. Forests, up to 1100m.  
  13. Tylophora setosa Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 563; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347; --P.I.Forst. & Liddle, Austral. Syst. Bot. 7 (1994) 517; --Type: Elmer 11962 (BO, L, NY), Mindanao: Davao, Mt Apo, Todaya, scandent upon small trees of humid forests at 4500ft on the Talon side of the  mountain range, Oct-1909. Endemic to the Philippines. MINDANAO: Davao (Mt Apo). Forests or thickets, c. 1370m.  
  14. Tylophora tonsa Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13 (1915) 564; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347; --Type: Merrill 7187 (L, MO, US, iso), Lambucan (in Sulu Sea). Thickets behind sandy beach, Sep-1910. Endemic to the Philippines. LAMBUCAN (in Sulu Sea). Thickets along the seashore. Not distinct from Tylophora glauciramea (Merrill 1923)?
  15. Tylophora whitfordii Schltr., PJS 1 (1906) Suppl. 297; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 347; --Type: Whitford 898, Luzon: Quezon prov., Gumaca, Sep-1904. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Gumaca). Nipa tidal stream. Not distinct from T. perrottetiana (Merrill 1923)? 

Urceola Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017

No Photos
  1. Urceola brachysepala Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 659; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 84; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 396; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia. --Carruthersia imberbis Elmer, LPB 2 (1909) 588; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 332; --Type: Elmer 9239 (K, lecto; BM, BO, E, L, MO, NSW, NY, US Z, iso), Luzon: Quezon prov., Lucban, May-1907. --Chavannesia philippinensis (Merr.) Pichon, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris sér. 2, 20 (1948) 302; --Urceola philippinensis Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 69; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 332; --Type: Clemens 1098 (M, lecto; BO, GH, iso), Mindanao: Lanao del Sur prov., Camp Keithley. Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, W Java, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah), Philippines. LUZON: Rizal (Montalban), Laguna, Quezon (Lucban), Camarines Norte (Mt Cadig), Sorsogon (Mt Bulusan), MINDORO: Mindoro Mindoro Oriental (Pinamalayan); PALAWAN (Pagdanan Range: 10 km E of San Vicente, Roxas, Ibangley, Mt Bloomfield), LEYTE, SAMAR: Northern Samar (Catarman, Mt Cansayao), MINDANAO: Lanao del Sur (Camp Keithley), Agusan del Norte (Butuan), Surigao del Sur (Hinatuan), BUCAS GRANDE. In a wide variety of habitats from cliffs to primary forest or swamp forest to 1000m.  
  2. Urceola laevis (Elmer) Merr., PJS 10 c (1915) Bot. 69; EPFP 3 (1923) 332; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 41 (1996) 91; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 401; --Carruthersia laevis Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1449; --Type: Elmer 12837 (Z, lecto; BISH, BM, BO, BP, E, L, MICH, MO, NA, NSW, NY, P, isolecto), Palawan: Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa, Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak). Borneo (Sabah), Philippines, Sulawesi. PALAWAN (Mt Bloomfield, Mt Pulgar: Irawan River valley, Mt Victoria: Trident Mine). Forests to 1500m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

Voacanga Thouars

Edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 11 November 2016

Photos
  1. Voacanga foetida (Blume) Rolfe, J. Bot. London 21 (1883) 202; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 413; --Orchipeda foetida Blume, Bijdr. (1826) 1027; --Type from Java. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines. Photos
  2. Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr., PJS 4 c (1909) Bot. 319; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 326; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 413; --Tabernaemontana globosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 116; Fl. Filip. ed. 2 (1845) 83; --Type: Untraced; Merrill Species Blancoanae 462 (W, neo; BM, BO, F, K, L, MO, NY, P, US, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna prov., Los Baños. --Voacanga cumingiana Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1884) 313; --Type: Cuming 1806 (K, lecto; BM, W, isolecto), Negros. --Voacanga dolichocalyx Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 192; --Type: BS 45264 Ramos & Edaño (NY, lecto; K, US, isolecto), Luzon: Aurora prov., Casiguran. --Voacanga latifolia Quisumb. & Merr., PJS 37 (1928) 193; --Type: BS 47070 Ramos & Edaño (A, lecto; NY, UC, isolecto), Luzon: Isabela prov., San Mariano. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON (widespread especially along the E half), POLILLO, MINDORO, MASBATE, PANAY, NEGROS, CEBU, BILIRAN, LEYTE, SAMAR, DINAGAT and MINDANAO. Common in secondary and primary forests, to 300m. Photos
  3. Voacanga grandifolia (Miq.) Rolfe, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1883) 202; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 415; --Pootia grandifolia Miq., Verslagen Meded. Afd. Natuurk. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. 6 (1857) 193; --Type from Java. Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, Australia (Queensland). MINDANAO.
  4. Voacanga megacarpa Merr., PJS 7 c (1912) 336; EPFP 3 (1923) 327; --D.J.Middleton, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 420; --Type: BS 12343 Foxworthy; Whitford 829 (US, neo; P, isoneo), Luzon: Quezon prov. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Quezon (Tununi River, Binagonan), Camarines, Sorsogon. Low elevation secondary forests, along streams. Photos 

Willughbeia Roxb.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 18 August 2017

No Photos
  1. Willughbeia anomala Markgr., Blumea 20 (1972) 415; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 38 (1993) 7; Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 424; --Type from Brunei. Borneo, Philippines. MINDANAO. 
  2. Willughbeia sarawacensis (Pierre) K.Schum. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 2 (1900) 53; --Markgr., Blumea 20 (1972) 413; --D.J.Middleton, Blumea 38 (1993) 17; Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 18 (2007) 434; --Ancylocladus sarawacensis Pierre, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris sér. 2, 1 (1898) 96; --Type from Sarawak. Borneo, Philippines. PALAWAN. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).

Wrightia R.Br.

Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2 September 2017

Photos
  1. Wrightia candollei S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming, Philipp. (1885) 186 (as ‘cadollei’); --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 337; --D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10 (2005) 162; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 437; --Wrightia pubescens R.Br. subsp. candollei (S.Vidal) Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 153; --Type: Cuming 1453 (P, lecto; BM, CGE, K, isolecto), Luzon: ‘Manila’. Endemic to the Philippines. LUZON: Benguet, Pangasinan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna, MINDORO, PALAWAN (Taytay, Irawan River Valley), LANGEN. Mixed evergreen or deciduous low elevation forests and secondary growth. Photos
  2. Wrightia aff. dubia (Sims) Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 1 (1825) 638; --Soejarto et al. (1995) Prelim. Checklist Fl. Pl. Palawan. Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, ?Philippines. PALAWAN (Tacdua Zigzag, Bacungan: hills above Nagtabon beach, Narra: Calatigas Purok Dumpsite, Balanjao Range: Rio Tuba).
  3. Wrightia hanleyi Elmer, LPB 4 (1912) 1465; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 337; --Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 168; --D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10 (2005) 166; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 440; --Type: Elmer 12873 (GH, lecto; A, BISH, BO, E, F, K, L, MO, NSW, NY, US, Z, isolecto), Palawan: Mt Pulgar (=Thumb Peak), Mar-1911. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN (Taytay: Mt Bloomfield, Irawan River Valley, Narra: Bato-bato km 107, Quezon: Lipuun, Brooke’s Point). Clearings, thickets and open forests, low elevation. Conservation status: Other Threatened Species (DAO 2017-11). Photos
  4. Wrightia laevis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 3 (1882) 654; --Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 136; --D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10 (2005) 168; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 440; --Type from Peninsular Malaysia. --Wrightia sorsogonensis Elmer, LPB 10 (1939) 3698, nom. inval., no Latin descr.; based on Elmer 15595 (A, BM, BO, C, GH, K, L, MO, NSW, NY, P, PNH, S, Z), Luzon: Sorsogon prov., Mt Bulusan, Irosin. S China, Hainan, Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, New Guinea, Australia (Queensland). LUZON: Sorsogon.
  5. Wrightia palawanensis D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10 (2005) 172; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 442; --Type: SMHI 698 Podzorski (A, holo; BO, BRI, KEP, L, iso), Palawan: Irawan Valley head on the lower slopes of Mt Beaufort. Endemic to the Philippines. PALAWAN. Riverine and mixed forests and from ultramafic soils, 100-200m. Conservation status: Vulnerable (DAO 2017-11).
  6. Wrightia pubescens R.Br., Prodr. (1810) 467; --Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 150; --D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10 (2005) 172; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 443; --Type from Northern Territories, Australia. --Wrightia calycina A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 406; --Merr., EPFP 3 (1923) 337; --Type from Timor. Philippines, E Java, Lesser Sunda Isls, Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia (Northern Territories). PALAWAN, MASBATE, PANAY, GUIMARAS, NEGROS, CEBU, BILIRAN, LEYTE, MINDANAO: Lanao, Davao. Low elevation thickets and forests.
    • ssp. laniti (Blanco) Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 153; --D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10 (2005) 176; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 444; --Wrightia laniti (Blanco) Merr., Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philipp.) 27 (1905) 59; Fl. Manila (1912) 373; EPFP 3 (1923) 337; --Anasser laniti Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 112; --Type: Untraced; PNH 22879 Sulit (A, neo; L, isoneo), Luzon: Laguna prov., Makiling National Park. --Wrightia ovata A.DC., Prodr. 8 (1844) 405; --Type: Cuming 1279 (G, lecto; P, isolecto), Luzon: “Manila”. S China, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, W Java, Philippines, Sulawesi. LUZON: Cagayan to Laguna, MINDORO, CULION, PALAWAN, NEGROS, MINDANAO: Zamboanga. Common in thickets and secondary forests at low elevation. Photos
  7. Wrightia religiosa (Teijsm. & Binn.) Benth. ex Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 46, 2 (1877) 258; --Ngan, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52 (1965) 159; --D.J.Middleton, Harvard Pap. Bot. 10 (2005) 179; Fl. Males. ser. 1, 18 (2007) 446; --Echites religiosus Teijsm. & Binn., Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 27 (1864) 34; --Type: Untraced; neotype from Thailand. Thailand, Cambodia, possibly Peninsular Malaysia. Natural distribution is obscure owing to wide cultivation. Widely cultivated in many parts of Malesia.

    Cultivated, not naturalized:  
  1. Wrightia antidysenterica (L.) R.Br., Asclepiadeae (1810) 63; --Nerium antidysentericum L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 209. Native to Sri Lanka. Photos

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Acknowledgements

Andrea B. Agillon, Fernando B. Aurigue, Raab Bustamante, Derek Cabactulan, John Clifton Mayer, Benigno Resurreccion, Greg Rule, Jorge R. Sahagun, Ravan Schneider, and Danilo Tandang kindly provided a number of photographs found on this webpage. Tatyana Livshultz provided helpful feedback.

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Last updated 4 September 2017